AsCl3 (arsenic trichloride) has one arsenic atom and three chlorine atoms. In the lewis structure of AsCl3, there are three single bonds around the arsenic atom, with three chlorine atoms attached to it. Each chlorine atom has three lone pairs, and the arsenic atom has one lone pair.
Here’s how you can draw the AsCl3 lewis structure step by step.
Step #1: draw sketch
Step #2: mark lone pairs
Step #3: mark charges (if there are)
Let’s break down each step in detail.
#1 Draw Sketch
- First, determine the total number of valence electrons
Hence, arsenic has five valence electrons and chlorine has seven valence electrons.
Since AsCl3 has one arsenic atom and three chlorine atoms, so…
Valence electrons of one arsenic atom = 5 × 1 = 5
Valence electrons of three chlorine atoms = 7 × 3 = 21
And the total valence electrons = 5 + 21 = 26
- Second, find the total electron pairs
We have a total of 26 valence electrons. And when we divide this value by two, we get the value of total electron pairs.
Total electron pairs = total valence electrons ÷ 2
So the total electron pairs = 26 ÷ 2 = 13
- Third, determine the central atom
We have to place the least electronegative atom at the center.
Since arsenic is less electronegative than chlorine, assume that the central atom is arsenic.
Therefore, place arsenic in the center and chlorines on either side.
- And finally, draw the rough sketch
#2 Mark Lone Pairs
Here, we have a total of 13 electron pairs. And three As — Cl bonds are already marked. So we have to only mark the remaining ten electron pairs as lone pairs on the sketch.
Always start to mark the lone pairs from outside atoms. Here, the outside atoms are chlorines.
So for each chlorine, there are three lone pairs, and for arsenic, there is one lone pair.
Mark the lone pairs on the sketch as follows:
#3 Mark Charges
Use the following formula to calculate the formal charges on atoms:
Formal charge = valence electrons – nonbonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons
For arsenic atom, formal charge = 5 – 2 – ½ (6) = 0
For each chlorine atom, formal charge = 7 – 6 – ½ (2) = 0
Here, both arsenic and chlorine atoms do not have charges, so no need to mark the charges.
And in the above structure, you can see that the central atom (arsenic) forms an octet. Hence, the octet rule is satisfied.
Therefore, this structure is the stable lewis structure of AsCl3.
Next: CHBr3 Lewis Structure