Periodic Table | Elements List in Order

Periodic Table
Periodic table

A periodic table, often known as the periodic table of elements, displays all chemical elements in a table form. The table contains 118 elements in ascending atomic number sequence.

The s-block, p-block, d-block, and f-block are the four blocks that make up the table. The table’s eighteen vertical columns are referred to as groups, while its seven horizontal rows are referred to as periods.

Periodic table is frequently used in physics, chemistry, and other sciences and is usually viewed as a symbol of chemistry. It is a visual representation of the periodic law, which states that the properties of chemical elements show an approximately periodic dependency on their atomic numbers.

Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist, proposed the periodic law, which states that chemical properties depend on atomic mass, and his periodic table was the first to be widely acknowledged.

Mendeleev’s periodic table had gaps because not all elements were known at the time; however, he was able to predict some of the missing elements’ properties using the periodic law.

The periodic table is still changing as science advances. Only elements up to atomic number 94 occur in nature; to proceed further, new elements have to be synthesized in the laboratory.

First seven rows of the periodic table now have all 118 initial elements identified, although chemical characterization of the heaviest elements is still required to make sure that their properties match to their places.

group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
period
1 1
H
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Hydrogen
2
He
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Helium
2 3
Li
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Lithium
4
Be
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Beryllium
5
B
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Boron
6
C
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Carbon
7
N
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Nitrogen
8
O
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Oxygen
9
F
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Fluorine
10
Ne
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Neon
3 11
Na
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Sodium
12
Mg
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Magnesium
13
Al
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Aluminium
14
Si
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Silicon
15
P
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Phosphorus
16
S
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Sulfur
17
Cl
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Chlorine
18
Ar
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Argon
4 19
K
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Potassium
20
Ca
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Calcium
21
Sc
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Scandium
22
Ti
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Titanium
23
V
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Vanadium
24
Cr
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Chromium
25
Mn
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Manganese
26
Fe
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Iron
27
Co
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Cobalt
28
Ni
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Nickel
29
Cu
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Copper
30
Zn
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Zinc
31
Ga
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Gallium
32
Ge
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Germanium
33
As
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Arsenic
34
Se
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Selenium
35
Br
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Bromine
36
Kr
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Krypton
5 37
Rb
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Rubidium
38
Sr
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Strontium
39
Y
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Yttrium
40
Zr
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Zirconium
41
Nb
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Niobium
42
Mo
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Molybdenum
43
Tc
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Technetium
44
Ru
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Ruthenium
45
Rh
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Rhodium
46
Pd
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Palladium
47
Ag
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Silver
48
Cd
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Cadmium
49
In
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Indium
50
Sn
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Tin
51
Sb
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Antimony
52
Te
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Tellurium
53
I
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Iodine
54
Xe
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Xenon
6 55
Cs
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Caesium
56
Ba
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Barium
72
Hf
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Hafnium
73
Ta
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Tantalum
74
W
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Tungsten
75
Re
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Rhenium
76
Os
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Osmium
77
Ir
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Iridium
78
Pt
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Platinum
79
Au
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Gold
80
Hg
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Mercury
81
Tl
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Thallium
82
Pb
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Lead
83
Bi
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Bismuth
84
Po
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Polonium
85
At
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Astatine
86
Rn
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Radon
7 87
Fr
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Francium
88
Ra
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Radium
104
Rf
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Rutherfordium
105
Db
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Dubnium
106
Sg
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Seaborgium
107
Bh
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Bohrium
108
Hs
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Hassium
109
Mt
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Meitnerium
110
Ds
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Darmstadtium
111
Rg
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Roentgenium
112
Cn
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Copernicium
113
Nh
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Nihonium
114
Fl
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Flerovium
115
Mc
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Moscovium
116
Lv
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Livermorium
117
Ts
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Tennessine
118
Og
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Oganesson
57
La
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Lanthanum
58
Ce
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Cerium
59
Pr
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Praseodymium
60
Nd
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Neodymium
61
Pm
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Promethium
62
Sm
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Samarium
63
Eu
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Europium
64
Gd
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Gadolinium
65
Tb
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Terbium
66
Dy
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Dysprosium
67
Ho
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Holmium
68
Er
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Erbium
69
Tm
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Thulium
70
Yb
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Ytterbium
71
Lu
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Lutetium
89
Ac
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Actinium
90
Th
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Thorium
91
Pa
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Protactinium
92
U
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Uranium
93
Np
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Neptunium
94
Pu
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Plutonium
95
Am
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Americium
96
Cm
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Curium
97
Bk
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Berkelium
98
Cf
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Californium
99
Es
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Einsteinium
100
Fm
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Fermium
101
Md
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Mendelevium
102
No
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Nobelium
103
Lr
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Lawrencium
– s block – p block
– d block – f block

How are Elements Classified on the Periodic Table?

There are many terms used to describe groups of elements that behave similarly. Alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, pnictogen, chalcogen, halogen, and noble gas are six of the group names recognized by the IUPAC.[1]

Although there is no official IUPAC definition of which elements are metals, nonmetals, or metalloids, some people divide the p-block elements into groups 13-16 based on metallicity.

The terms “post-transition metal” and “poor metal” have both been suggested as alternatives for the name of the metals that would replace the transition metals, but neither term has gained widespread acceptance.

The elements from La to Lu, which are all highly similar to one another, are referred to as the lanthanides. Historically, it included only elements Ce to Lu, but lanthanum was eventually added by usage.

Similarly, the elements from Ac to Lr (previously, Th to Lr) are referred to as actinides; even though the elements in this group have a larger variation of properties as compared to those in the lanthanides.

Short History of Periodic Table

Carbon, sulfur, iron, copper, silver, tin, gold, mercury, and lead are some of the chemical elements that have been known since ancient history as they are found in their natural state and are relatively easy to mine using primitive tools.

Zinc, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth are a few other elements that were recognized during the age of alchemy.

Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, a German physicist, made one of the first attempts to categorize the elements in 1817.

In 1829, he discovered that he could organize some of the elements into groups of three, with each group’s members possessing similar properties. He called these combinations “triads.”

A triad was created by the elements chlorine, bromine, and iodine, as well as calcium, strontium, and barium; lithium, sodium, and potassium; and sulfur, selenium, and tellurium.[2]

Dmitri Mendeleev | source: Wikipedia

Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist, made the crucial discovery.

Mendeleev was the chemist who was most dedicated to developing and defending his framework, and it was his framework that had the biggest impact on the scientific community despite the fact that other chemists (including Meyer) had discovered some other variations of the periodic system around the same time.

Mendeleev started organizing the elements and comparing them based on their atomic weights in February 1869.

Mendeleev’s 1869 periodic table | source: Wikipedia

His printed table first appeared in the Russian Chemical Society’s publication in May 1869 after he settled on an acceptable arrangement.

He openly stated that when an element appeared to be missing from the system in some instances, it means that the element had not yet been located.

Mendeleev published a lengthy article in 1871 that included an updated version of his table and made public his predictions for undiscovered elements.

Mendeleev’s 1871 periodic table | source: Wikipedia

When the periodic table was finally organized, the relationship between the elements was finally appreciated for its descriptive value, but this appreciation was not recognized by everybody.

Mendeleev and Meyer argued over the importance of the periodic table in an exchange of papers published in the British newspaper Chemical News in 1881. These papers from Mendeleev and Meyer, and many more contained criticisms of the idea of periodicity.

In 1882, the Royal Society in London awarded Mendeleev and Meyer the Davy Medal in recognition of their work classifying the elements.

Two of Mendeleev’s predicted elements had already been found at the time, but his predictions were not even acknowledged in the justification for the award.

Mendeleev’s periodic table was widely accepted as a fundamental piece of chemical knowledge by 1890.[3]

Periodic Table Elements

Here’s the list of periodic table elements in order:

Periodic Table Elements
Element 1: Hydrogen (H)
s block
Element 2: Helium (He)
s block
Element 3: Lithium (Li)
s block
Element 4: Beryllium (Be)
s block
Element 5: Boron (B)
p block
Element 6: Carbon (C)
p block
Element 7: Nitrogen (N)
p block
Element 8: Oxygen (O)
p block
Element 9: Fluorine (Fl)
p block
Element 10: Neon (Ne)
p block
Element 11: Sodium (Na)
s block
Element 12: Magnesium (Mg)
s block
Element 13: Aluminium (Al)
p block
Element 14: Silicon (Si)
p block
Element 15: Phosphorus (P)
p block
Element 16: Sulfur (S)
p block
Element 17: Chlorine (Cl)
p block
Element 18: Argon (Ar)
p block
Element 19: Potassium (K)
s block
Element 20: Calcium (Ca)
s block
Element 21: Scandium (Sc)
d block
Element 22: Titanium (Ti)
d block
Element 23: Vanadium (Va)
d block
Element 24: Chromium (Cr)
d block
Element 25: Manganese (Mg)
d block
Element 26: Iron (Fe)
d block
Element 27: Cobalt (Co)
d block
Element 28: Nickel (Ni)
d block
Element 29: Copper (Cu)
d block
Element 30: Zinc (Zn)
d block
Element 31: Gallium (Ga)
p block
Element 32: Germanium (Ge)
p block
Element 33: Arsenic (As)
p block
Element 34: Selenium (Se)
p block
Element 35: Bromine (Br)
p block
Element 36: Krypton (Kr)
p block
Element 37: Rubidium (Rb)
s block
Element 38: Strontium (Sr)
s block
Element 39: Yttrium (Yt)
d block
Element 40: Zirconium (Zr)
d block
Element 41: Niobium (Nb)
d block
Element 42: Molybdenum (Mo)
d block
Element 43: Technetium (Tc)
d block
Element 44: Ruthenium (Ru)
d block
Element 45: Rhodium (Rh)
d block
Element 46: Palladium (Pd)
d block
Element 47: Silver (Ag)
d block
Element 48: Cadmium (Cd)
d block
Element 49: Indium (In)
p block
Element 50: Tin (Sn)
p block
Element 51: Antimony (Sb)
p block
Element 52: Tellurium (Te)
p block
Element 53: Iodine (I)
p block
Element 54: Xenon (Xe)
p block
Element 55: Caesium (Cs)
s block
Element 56: Barium (Ba)
s block
Element 57: Lanthanum (La)
f block
Element 58: Cerium (Ce)
f block
Element 59: Praseodymium (Pr)
f block
Element 60: Neodymium (Nd)
f block
Element 61: Promethium (Pm)
f block
Element 62: Samarium (Sm)
f block
Element 63: Europium (Eu)
f block
Element 64: Gadolinium (Gd)
f block
Element 65: Terbium (Tb)
f block
Element 66: Dysprosium (Dy)
f block
Element 67: Holmium (Ho)
f block
Element 68: Erbium (Er)
f block
Element 69: Thulium (Tm)
f block
Element 70: Ytterbium (Yb)
f block
Element 71: Lutetium (Lu)
d block
Element 72: Hafnium (Hf)
d block
Element 73: Tantalum (Ta)
d block
Element 74: Tungsten (W)
d block
Element 75: Rhenium (Re)
d block
Element 76: Osmium (Os)
d block
Element 77: Iridium (Ir)
d block
Element 78: Platinum (Pt)
d block
Element 79: Gold (Au)
d block
Element 80: Mercury (Hg)
d block
Element 81: Thallium (Tl)
p block
Element 82: Lead (Pb)
p block
Element 83: Bismuth (Bi)
p block
Element 84: Polonium (Po)
p block
Element 85: Astatine (At)
p block
Element 86: Radon (Rn)
p block
Element 87: Francium (Fr)
s block
Element 88: Radium (Ra)
s block
Element 89: Actinium (Ac)
f block
Element 90: Thorium (Th)
f block
Element 91: Protactinium (Pa)
f block
Element 92: Uranium (U)
f block
Element 93: Neptunium (Np)
f block
Element 94: Plutonium (Pu)
f block
Element 95: Americium (Am)
f block
Element 96: Curium (Cm)
f block
Element 97: Berkelium (Bk)
f block
Element 98: Californium (Cf)
f block
Element 99: Einsteinium (Es)
f block
Element 100: Fermium (Fm)
f block
Element 101: Mendelevium (Md)
f block
Element 102: Nobelium (No)
f block
Element 103: Lawrencium (Lr)
d block
Element 104: Rutherfordium (Rf)
d block
Element 105: Dubnium (Db)
d block
Element 106: Seaborgium (Sg)
d block
Element 107: Bohrium (Bh)
d block
Element 108: Hassium (Hs)
d block
Element 109: Meitnerium (Mt)
d block
Element 110: Darmstadtium (Ds)
d block
Element 111: Roentgenium (Rg)
d block
Element 112: Copernicium (Cn)
d block
Element 113: Nihonium (Nh)
p block
Element 114: Flerovium (Fl)
p block
Element 115: Moscovium (Mc)
p block
Element 116: Livermorium (Lv)
p block
Element 117: Tennessine (Ts)
p block
Element 118: Oganesson (Og)
p block

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Related:

References:

1. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 2005)

2. Development of the periodic table

3. The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance (pg 156-169)

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