Block (Periodic Table)

Block Periodic Table

A block of the periodic table is a set of elements grouped by the atomic orbitals and their valence electrons. The French biologist Charles Janet has used this term for the first time. The s-block, p-block, d-block, and f-block are the four blocks names that come from the spectroscopic notation for the electron’s azimuthal quantum number values: sharp (0), principal (1), diffuse (2), and fundamental (3).

group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
period
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
block
– s block – d block
– p block – f block

s-block

The s-block is on the left side of the periodic table. It includes the nonmetals hydrogen and helium, the alkali metals, and the alkaline earth metals. In each row of the periodic table, there are two s-block elements.

All the s-block elements (except helium) are highly reactive metals. Most of the metals of s-block are generally soft and have low melting and boiling point. Also, the elements of the s-block are highly electropositive.

p-block

The p-block is on the right side of the periodic table. It includes the elements of group 13 (boron group), group 14 (carbon group), group 15 (nitrogen group), group 16 (oxygen group), group 17 (halogens), and group 18 (which includes noble gases and oganesson). Though helium is in group 18, it is not a p-block element.

Excluding the first row of the periodic table, in each row, there are six p-block elements. This block is the only block that includes all three types of elements: metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.

d-block

The d-block is in the middle of the periodic table. It includes the elements of group 3 to group 12. The elements of d-block are also known as transition metals.

All the d-block elements are metals. Though elements of group 3 and group 12 are d-block metals, they are sometimes not counted as transition metals because they do not satisfy the definition.

f-block

The f-block is at the bottom of the periodic table. The elements of f-block are also known as inner transition metals. These elements are generally not considered as a part of any group. But, they are in the sixth row and seventh row of the periodic table. All the f-block elements are metals.

g-block

The g-block is a theoretical region in the periodic table that includes elements having an atomic number higher than 118.

FAQs on Block (Periodic Table)

‣ What are d-block elements called?

The d-block elements are also known as transition elements (or transition metals).
‣ What are f-block elements called?

The f-block elements are also known as inner transition elements (or inner transition metals).
‣ Are p-block elements metals?

Only nine elements (aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, tin, lead, bismuth, polonium, and astatine) in the p-block are metals. The rest of the elements are either nonmetals or metalloids.
‣ Which block has the most elements?

In terms of number, the d-block has the highest number of elements.

On the other hand, the p-block (which has the second-highest number of elements) includes all three types of elements: metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
‣ How many elements are in d-block?

There are 40 chemical elements in the d-block from group 3 to group 12.
‣ How many p-block groups are there?

There are six p-block groups in the periodic table from group 13 to group 18.
‣ What are s-block and p-block elements called?

The s-block and p-block elements are known as the main group elements.
‣ Which is not a p-block element?

The helium element which is in group 18 of the periodic table is not a p-block element.
‣ What families are included in the s-block periodic table?

The s-block of the periodic table includes the alkali metal family and alkaline earth metal family.
‣ In which block of the modern periodic table are the nonmetals found?

Most of the nonmetals (except hydrogen and helium) are in the p-block of the modern periodic table.
‣ Where is the s sublevel block located on the periodic table?

The s sublevel block is on the left-hand side of the periodic table (the first two columns).
‣ Where is the p sublevel block located on the periodic table?

The p sublevel block is on the right-hand side of the periodic table (from group 13 to group 18).
‣ Where is the d sublevel block located on the periodic table?

The d sublevel block is in the middle of the periodic table (from group 3 to group 12).
‣ Where is the f sublevel block located on the periodic table?

The f sublevel block is at the bottom of the periodic table (two rows: lanthanides and actinides).
‣ Where are the p-block elements on the periodic table?

The p-block elements are on the right side of the periodic table.

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