Block (Periodic Table)

Block Periodic Table

A block of the periodic table is a set of elements grouped by the atomic orbitals and their valence electrons. The French biologist Charles Janet has used this term for the first time. The s-block, p-block, d-block, and f-block are the four blocks names that come from the spectroscopic notation for the electron’s azimuthal quantum number values: sharp (0), principal (1), diffuse (2), and fundamental (3).

group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
period
1 1
H
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Hydrogen
2
He
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Helium
2 3
Li
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Lithium
4
Be
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Beryllium
5
B
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Boron
6
C
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Carbon
7
N
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Nitrogen
8
O
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Oxygen
9
F
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Fluorine
10
Ne
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Neon
3 11
Na
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Sodium
12
Mg
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Magnesium
13
Al
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Aluminium
14
Si
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Silicon
15
P
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Phosphorus
16
S
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Sulfur
17
Cl
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Chlorine
18
Ar
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Argon
4 19
K
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Potassium
20
Ca
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Calcium
21
Sc
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Scandium
22
Ti
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Titanium
23
V
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Vanadium
24
Cr
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Chromium
25
Mn
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Manganese
26
Fe
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Iron
27
Co
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Cobalt
28
Ni
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Nickel
29
Cu
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Copper
30
Zn
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Zinc
31
Ga
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Gallium
32
Ge
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Germanium
33
As
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Arsenic
34
Se
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Selenium
35
Br
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Bromine
36
Kr
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Krypton
5 37
Rb
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Rubidium
38
Sr
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Strontium
39
Y
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Yttrium
40
Zr
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Zirconium
41
Nb
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Niobium
42
Mo
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Molybdenum
43
Tc
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Technetium
44
Ru
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Ruthenium
45
Rh
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Rhodium
46
Pd
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Palladium
47
Ag
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Silver
48
Cd
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Cadmium
49
In
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Indium
50
Sn
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Tin
51
Sb
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Antimony
52
Te
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Tellurium
53
I
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Iodine
54
Xe
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Xenon
6 55
Cs
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Caesium
56
Ba
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Barium
72
Hf
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Hafnium
73
Ta
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Tantalum
74
W
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Tungsten
75
Re
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Rhenium
76
Os
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Osmium
77
Ir
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Iridium
78
Pt
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Platinum
79
Au
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Gold
80
Hg
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Mercury
81
Tl
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Thallium
82
Pb
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Lead
83
Bi
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Bismuth
84
Po
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Polonium
85
At
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Astatine
86
Rn
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Radon
7 87
Fr
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Francium
88
Ra
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Radium
104
Rf
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Rutherfordium
105
Db
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Dubnium
106
Sg
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Seaborgium
107
Bh
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Bohrium
108
Hs
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Hassium
109
Mt
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Meitnerium
110
Ds
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Darmstadtium
111
Rg
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Roentgenium
112
Cn
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Copernicium
113
Nh
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Nihonium
114
Fl
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Flerovium
115
Mc
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Moscovium
116
Lv
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Livermorium
117
Ts
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Tennessine
118
Og
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Oganesson
57
La
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Lanthanum
58
Ce
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Cerium
59
Pr
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Praseodymium
60
Nd
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Neodymium
61
Pm
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Promethium
62
Sm
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Samarium
63
Eu
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Europium
64
Gd
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Gadolinium
65
Tb
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Terbium
66
Dy
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Dysprosium
67
Ho
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Holmium
68
Er
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Erbium
69
Tm
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Thulium
70
Yb
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Ytterbium
71
Lu
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Lutetium
89
Ac
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Actinium
90
Th
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Thorium
91
Pa
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Protactinium
92
U
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Uranium
93
Np
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Neptunium
94
Pu
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Plutonium
95
Am
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Americium
96
Cm
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Curium
97
Bk
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Berkelium
98
Cf
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Californium
99
Es
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Einsteinium
100
Fm
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Fermium
101
Md
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Mendelevium
102
No
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Nobelium
103
Lr
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Lawrencium
block
– s block – p block
– d block – f block

s-block

The s-block is on the left side of the periodic table. It includes the nonmetals hydrogen and helium, the alkali metals, and the alkaline earth metals. In each row of the periodic table, there are two s-block elements.

All the s-block elements (except helium) are highly reactive metals. Most of the metals of s-block are generally soft and have low melting and boiling point. Also, the elements of the s-block are highly electropositive.

p-block

The p-block is on the right side of the periodic table. It includes the elements of group 13 (boron group), group 14 (carbon group), group 15 (nitrogen group), group 16 (oxygen group), group 17 (halogens), and group 18 (which includes noble gases and oganesson). Though helium is in group 18, it is not a p-block element.

Excluding the first row of the periodic table, in each row, there are six p-block elements. This block is the only block that includes all three types of elements: metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.

d-block

The d-block is in the middle of the periodic table. It includes the elements of group 3 to group 12. The elements of d-block are also known as transition metals.

All the d-block elements are metals. Though elements of group 3 and group 12 are d-block metals, they are sometimes not counted as transition metals because they do not satisfy the definition.

f-block

The f-block is at the bottom of the periodic table. The elements of f-block are also known as inner transition metals. These elements are generally not considered as a part of any group. But, they are in the sixth row and seventh row of the periodic table. All the f-block elements are metals.

g-block

The g-block is a theoretical region in the periodic table that includes elements having an atomic number higher than 118.

FAQs on Block (Periodic Table)

‣ What are d-block elements called?

The d-block elements are also known as transition elements (or transition metals).
‣ What are f-block elements called?

The f-block elements are also known as inner transition elements (or inner transition metals).
‣ Are p-block elements metals?

Only nine elements (aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, tin, lead, bismuth, polonium, and astatine) in the p-block are metals. The rest of the elements are either nonmetals or metalloids.
‣ Which block has the most elements?

In terms of number, the d-block has the highest number of elements.

On the other hand, the p-block (which has the second-highest number of elements) includes all three types of elements: metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
‣ How many elements are in d-block?

There are 40 chemical elements in the d-block from group 3 to group 12.
‣ How many p-block groups are there?

There are six p-block groups in the periodic table from group 13 to group 18.
‣ What are s-block and p-block elements called?

The s-block and p-block elements are known as the main group elements.
‣ Which is not a p-block element?

The helium element which is in group 18 of the periodic table is not a p-block element.
‣ What families are included in the s-block periodic table?

The s-block of the periodic table includes the alkali metal family and alkaline earth metal family.
‣ In which block of the modern periodic table are the nonmetals found?

Most of the nonmetals (except hydrogen and helium) are in the p-block of the modern periodic table.
‣ Where is the s sublevel block located on the periodic table?

The s sublevel block is on the left-hand side of the periodic table (the first two columns).
‣ Where is the p sublevel block located on the periodic table?

The p sublevel block is on the right-hand side of the periodic table (from group 13 to group 18).
‣ Where is the d sublevel block located on the periodic table?

The d sublevel block is in the middle of the periodic table (from group 3 to group 12).
‣ Where is the f sublevel block located on the periodic table?

The f sublevel block is at the bottom of the periodic table (two rows: lanthanides and actinides).
‣ Where are the p-block elements on the periodic table?

The p-block elements are on the right side of the periodic table.

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