Francium Element (Periodic Table)

Francium
Francium block

Francium (Fr) is a chemical element of the periodic table, located in group 1 and period 7, and has the atomic number 87. This element is named after France, the homeland of the discoverer Marguerite Perey.

Francium is the heaviest chemical element of group 1 and the second most electropositive element. It is considered as one of the radioactive elements and is the second rarest element after astatine.

Dmitri I. Mendeleev, a Russian chemist, predicted the existence of francium in his periodic classification of elements. In 1939, Marguerite Perey finally discovered the element at the Curie Institute in Paris, France.[1]

The element occurs naturally in small amounts in uranium minerals, but scientists believe that there is probably less than a kilogram of francium available in Earth’s crust. In the laboratory, francium can be synthesized using a special process, but it is not found naturally in large quantities.

There are 34 known isotopes of francium, which have atomic masses ranging from 199 to 232. 221Fr and 223Fr are the only naturally occurring isotopes of francium, while all the others are synthetic.

Francium’s most stable isotope 223Fr has a half-life of only 22 minutes. It is extremely rare that another francium isotope with a longer half-life would ever be found or created.

group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
period
1 1
H
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Hydrogen
2
He
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Helium
2 3
Li
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Lithium
4
Be
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Beryllium
5
B
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Boron
6
C
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Carbon
7
N
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Nitrogen
8
O
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Oxygen
9
F
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Fluorine
10
Ne
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Neon
3 11
Na
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Sodium
12
Mg
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Magnesium
13
Al
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Aluminium
14
Si
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Silicon
15
P
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Phosphorus
16
S
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Sulfur
17
Cl
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Chlorine
18
Ar
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Argon
4 19
K
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Potassium
20
Ca
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Calcium
21
Sc
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Scandium
22
Ti
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Titanium
23
V
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Vanadium
24
Cr
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Chromium
25
Mn
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Manganese
26
Fe
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Iron
27
Co
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Cobalt
28
Ni
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Nickel
29
Cu
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Copper
30
Zn
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Zinc
31
Ga
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Gallium
32
Ge
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Germanium
33
As
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Arsenic
34
Se
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Selenium
35
Br
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Bromine
36
Kr
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Krypton
5 37
Rb
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Rubidium
38
Sr
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Strontium
39
Y
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Yttrium
40
Zr
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Zirconium
41
Nb
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Niobium
42
Mo
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Molybdenum
43
Tc
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Technetium
44
Ru
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Ruthenium
45
Rh
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Rhodium
46
Pd
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Palladium
47
Ag
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Silver
48
Cd
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Cadmium
49
In
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Indium
50
Sn
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Tin
51
Sb
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Antimony
52
Te
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Tellurium
53
I
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Iodine
54
Xe
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Xenon
6 55
Cs
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Caesium
56
Ba
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Barium
72
Hf
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Hafnium
73
Ta
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Tantalum
74
W
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Tungsten
75
Re
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Rhenium
76
Os
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Osmium
77
Ir
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Iridium
78
Pt
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Platinum
79
Au
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Gold
80
Hg
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Mercury
81
Tl
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Thallium
82
Pb
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Lead
83
Bi
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Bismuth
84
Po
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Polonium
85
At
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Astatine
86
Rn
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Radon
7 87
Fr
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Francium
88
Ra
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Radium
104
Rf
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Rutherfordium
105
Db
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Dubnium
106
Sg
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Seaborgium
107
Bh
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Bohrium
108
Hs
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Hassium
109
Mt
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Meitnerium
110
Ds
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Darmstadtium
111
Rg
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Roentgenium
112
Cn
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Copernicium
113
Nh
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Nihonium
114
Fl
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Flerovium
115
Mc
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Moscovium
116
Lv
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Livermorium
117
Ts
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Tennessine
118
Og
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Oganesson
57
La
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Lanthanum
58
Ce
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Cerium
59
Pr
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Praseodymium
60
Nd
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Neodymium
61
Pm
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Promethium
62
Sm
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Samarium
63
Eu
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Europium
64
Gd
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Gadolinium
65
Tb
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Terbium
66
Dy
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Dysprosium
67
Ho
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Holmium
68
Er
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Erbium
69
Tm
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Thulium
70
Yb
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Ytterbium
71
Lu
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Lutetium
89
Ac
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Actinium
90
Th
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Thorium
91
Pa
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Protactinium
92
U
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Uranium
93
Np
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Neptunium
94
Pu
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Plutonium
95
Am
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Americium
96
Cm
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Curium
97
Bk
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Berkelium
98
Cf
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Californium
99
Es
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Einsteinium
100
Fm
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Fermium
101
Md
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Mendelevium
102
No
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Nobelium
103
Lr
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Lawrencium
– s block

Francium Element Information

Francium Element
Francium appearance | source: Fandom
Francium Periodic Table
Francium location on periodic table
Francium is found in the first column of the periodic table below the cesium element.
Origin of name named after France, the homeland of the discoverer Marguerite Perey
Symbol Fr
Atomic number (Z) 87
Atomic mass (223)
Block s-block
Group 1
Period 7
Classification Alkali metal
Covalent radius 260 pm (extrapolated)
Van der Waals radius 348 pm (extrapolated)
Melting point 27 ℃, 81 ℉, 300 K
Boiling point 677 ℃, 1251 ℉, 950 K
Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1
Learn how to draw: Francium Bohr Model
Crystal structure Body-centered cubic (bcc) (extrapolated)
Phase at r.t Solid
Density near r.t 2.48 g/cm3 (estimated)
Natural occurrence From decay
Oxidation state +1
Electronegativity (Pauling scale) >0.79
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
87
136
87
Learn how to find: Francium Protons Neutrons Electrons
Valence electrons 1
Learn how to find: Francium Valence Electrons
CAS number 7440-73-5
Discovered by Marguerite Perey in 1939

How was Francium discovered?

Mendeleev believed it was possible to discover an element with atomic number 87 in nature as early as 1870. After this prediction, there were multiple claims made by scientists claiming to have found this element, but there were also denials and counterclaims from other scientists.

Marguerite Catherine Perey, a French chemist, eventually discovered francium in 1939 while examining the decay sequence of actinium.

The element discovered by Perey was named francium in honor of her home country of France. In 1949, the International Union of Chemists (IUC) officially recognized the name and assigned the symbol Fr, to the element.[2]

Before it was discovered, the element was known as eka-caesium or ekacaesium due to the belief that it existed below caesium in the periodic table.

How is Francium produced?

Francium can be made in a laboratory by shooting a beam of oxygen-18 atoms at a target made of gold-197 using a special machine called a linear accelerator. This process was first developed at the physics department of Stony Brook University of New York in 1995.

Alternatively, francium can be produced by bombarding thorium with protons, deuterons, or helium ions. Or by bombarding radium with neutrons.

What is Francium Used for?

Francium is one of a very few elements that has no practical usage outside of basic scientific research, mostly due to its extremely short half-life.[3]

Interesting Facts about Francium

Francium’s most stable isotope Francium-223 has a half-life of only 22 minutes.

Prior to its discovery, the element was known as eka-caesium.

Francium is never found in bulk, and is available only about 30 grams in the Earth’s crust.[4]

Francium is the second most electropositive element.

Francium has only two naturally occurring isotopes, Francium-221 and Francium-223.

Francium was one of the last elements to be identified among all naturally occurring elements.

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Related:

More Elements:

s block
p block
d block
f block
Barium Aluminium Bohrium Actinium
Beryllium Antimony Cadmium Americium
Caesium Argon Chromium Berkelium
Calcium Arsenic Cobalt Californium
Francium Astatine Copernicium Cerium
Helium Bismuth Copper Curium
Hydrogen Boron Darmstadtium Dysprosium
Lithium Bromine Dubnium Einsteinium
Magnesium Carbon Gold Erbium
Potassium Chlorine Hafnium Europium
Radium Flerovium Hassium Fermium
Rubidium Fluorine Iridium Gadolinium
Sodium Gallium Iron Holmium
Strontium Germanium Lawrencium Lanthanum
Indium Lutetium Mendelevium
Iodine Manganese Neodymium
Krypton Meitnerium Neptunium
Lead Mercury Nobelium
Livermorium Molybdenum Plutonium
Moscovium Nickel Praseodymium
Neon Niobium Promethium
Nihonium Osmium Protactinium
Nitrogen Palladium Samarium
Oganesson Platinum Terbium
Oxygen Rhenium Thorium
Phosphorus Rhodium Thulium
Polonium Roentgenium Uranium
Radon Ruthenium Ytterbium
Selenium Rutherfordium
Silicon Scandium
Sulfur Seaborgium
Tellurium Silver
Tennessine Tantalum
Thallium Technetium
Tin Titanium
Xenon Tungsten
Vanadium
Yttrium
Zinc
Zirconium

References:

1. FRANCIUM – RACI

2. Chemical Information for Element 87 – Francium – Andyscouse

3. It’s Elemental – The Element Francium

4. Finding francium | Nature Chemistry

External Links:

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