Carbon Element (Periodic Table)

Carbon

Carbon (C) is a chemical element of the periodic table, located in the group 14 and the period 2, and is having the atomic number 6. It is a shiny, black or dull grey reactive nonmetal, whose name comes from the Latin word “carbo”, which means charcoal. It is the 17th most abundant element on earth and is the first element in the carbon group.

group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
period
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
– p block

FAQs on Carbon Element

Carbon
‣ What does carbon look like?

Appearance:
graphite: black, metallic-looking
diamond: clear
‣ When was carbon discovered and by whom?

Discovery: Egyptians and Sumerians (3750 BCE)
Recognized as an element by: Antoine Lavoisier (1789)
‣ Where is carbon found on the periodic table?

Carbon Periodic Table

Location: Carbon is found in the second row of the periodic table, next to the boron element.
‣ What is carbon’s atomic number?

Atomic number (Z): 6
‣ What is carbon’s symbol?

Symbol: C
‣ What is the atomic weight of carbon (c)?

Standard atomic weight: [12.0096, 12.0116] conventional: 12.011
‣ What block is carbon in on the periodic table?

Block: p-block
‣ What group does carbon belong to in the periodic table?

Group: 14 (carbon group)
‣ What period is carbon in on the periodic table?

Period: 2
Carbon covalent radius:
sp3: 77 pm
sp2: 73 pm
sp: 69 pm
Carbon Van der Waals radius: 170 pm
Carbon triple point: 4600 K, 10,800 kPa
Carbon sublimation point: 3915 K (3642 °C, 6588 °F)
‣ How many electron shells does carbon have?

Electrons per shell: 2, 4
‣ What is carbon’s electron configuration?

Electron configuration: [He] 2s2 2p2
‣ How many carbon allotropes are there?

Allotropes: graphite, diamond, others
‣ What is carbon ionization energy?

Ionization energies:
1st: 1086.5 kJ/mol
2nd: 2352.6 kJ/mol
3rd: 4620.5 kJ/mol
‣ What phase is carbon at room temperature?

Phase (at r.t): solid
‣ What is carbon’s density?

Density (near r.t):
amorphous: 1.8-2.1 g/cm3
graphite: 2.267 g/cm3
diamond: 3.515 g/cm3
Carbon magnetic ordering: diamagnetic
Carbon natural occurrence: primordial
‣ What is the oxidation state of carbon?

Oxidation state: -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4
‣ What is carbon electronegativity?

Electronegativity: Pauling scale: 2.55
Carbon poisson’s ratio: diamond: 0.1
Carbon heat of fusion: graphite: 117 kJ/mol
Carbon molar heat capacity:
graphite: 8.517 J/(mol K)
diamond: 6.155 J/(mol K)
Carbon molar magnetic susceptibility: diamond: -5.9 × 10-6 cm3/mol
Speed of sound in carbon: diamond: 18,350 m/s (at 20 °C)
‣ What is the crystal structure of carbon?

Crystal structure: graphite: simple hexagonal (black)
Crystal structure: diamond: face-centered diamond-cubic (clear)
Thermal expansion of carbon: diamond: 0.8 µm/(m.K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity of carbon:
graphite: 119-165 W/(m.K)
diamond: 900-2300 W/(m.K)
Carbon electrical resistivity: graphite: 7.837 µΩ.m
‣ What is carbon hardness?

Mohs hardness:
graphite: 1-2
diamond: 10
Young’s modulus of carbon: diamond: 1050 GPa
Shear modulus of carbon: diamond: 478 GPa
Bulk modulus of carbon: diamond: 442 GPa
Carbon CAS number:
atomic carbon: 7440-44-0
graphite: 7782-42-5
diamond: 7782-40-3

‣ Carbon vapor pressure

Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)797885995114413371610

‣ How many isotopes does carbon have?

Main isotopes of carbon
IsotopeAbundanceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modeProduct
11Csyn20 minβ+11B
12C98.9 %stable
13C1.1 %stable
14Ctrace5730 yβ14N

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