Dubnium (Db) is a chemical element of the periodic table, located in the group 5 and the period 7, and has the atomic number 105. It is a silvery-white transition metal, which is named after Dubna, a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia. It is a transuranium element and is counted as one of the radioactive elements.
Dubnium on periodic table
|– d block|
Dubnium is a d-block element, situated in the fifth column of the periodic table, between rutherfordium (Rf) and seaborgium (Sg). It has the atomic number 105 and is denoted by the symbol Db.
Dubnium element information
|Dubnium is found in the fifth column of the periodic table, next to the rutherfordium element.|
|Origin of name||named after Dubna, a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia|
|Atomic number (Z)||105|
|Atomic radius||139 pm (estimated)|
|Covalent radius||149 pm (estimated)|
|Electron configuration||[Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11, 2|
|Crystal structure||Body-centered cubic (bcc) (predicted)|
|Phase at r.t||Solid (predicted)|
|Density near r.t||21.6 g/cm3 (predicted)|
|Discovered at||Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in 1970|
History of dubnium
Dubnium is a synthetic element that was first synthesized in 1968 by a team of Soviet scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. In the early 1960s, the Soviet team led by Georgy Flerov began conducting experiments to synthesize new heavy elements by bombarding targets with beams of ions. They were particularly interested in creating elements with atomic numbers higher than that of the known elements at the time.
In 1968, the Soviet team successfully synthesized dubnium by bombarding a target of americium-243 with neon-22 ions. The resulting nuclear reaction produced one atom of dubnium-260, which decayed within a fraction of a second. Dubnium was named after the city of Dubna, where it was first synthesized. The name was officially recognized by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) in 1997.
The discovery of dubnium was later confirmed by a team of American scientists at the University of California, Berkeley in 1970. The team, led by Albert Ghiorso, synthesized dubnium by bombarding a target of californium-249 with nitrogen-15 ions. They produced four atoms of dubnium-261, which decayed within a fraction of a second. Dubnium has a number of isotopes, all of which are highly unstable and radioactive. Its most stable isotope, dubnium-268, has a half-life of about a day.
Dubnium’s isotopes have been studied in detail for their contributions to the understanding of nuclear physics. However, dubnium has no known natural occurrence and is only produced in very small quantities in nuclear reactions. Its practical applications are limited due to its short half-life and radioactivity, but it continues to be studied for its contributions to the field of nuclear physics and chemistry.
Occurrence and production
Dubnium is a synthetic element that does not occur naturally on Earth. It is produced in small quantities through nuclear reactions in laboratories. Dubnium is typically produced by bombarding a target material with a beam of ions, which creates a nuclear reaction that may result in the synthesis of dubnium isotopes.
The most common target materials used to produce dubnium are actinide elements such as americium, curium, and californium. For example, dubnium-262 can be produced by bombarding a target of americium-243 with calcium-48 ions. This reaction produces dubnium-262 and three neutrons as byproducts. Another method for producing dubnium is to use nuclear fusion to create heavy elements that may decay into dubnium isotopes.
The synthesis of dubnium is challenging because it is a highly unstable and short-lived element. Its most stable isotope, dubnium-268, has a half-life of about a day, and many of its isotopes have half-lives of only a few seconds or less. Therefore, dubnium is produced in very small quantities, and its study requires specialized equipment and techniques.
Properties of dubnium
Dubnium is a highly unstable and radioactive transactinide element, with very little known about its physical and chemical properties. However, some properties of dubnium that have been observed are:
Dubnium is a heavy, silvery-white metal with a high melting point and boiling point. It has a very short half-life, with its most stable isotope having a half-life of only 34 seconds.
Dubnium is a transition metal with an electronic configuration of [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2. It has three valence electrons and forms mainly a +5 oxidation state.
Dubnium is highly radioactive and decays through alpha decay, emitting alpha particles. Its short half-life and high radioactivity make it very difficult to study and work with.
Dubnium is expected to have similar chemical properties to other transition metals in its group, such as tantalum and niobium. However, due to its short half-life, very few chemical experiments have been conducted with dubnium.
Uses of dubnium
Dubnium has no known practical applications due to its instability and high radioactivity. However, it continues to be studied for its contributions to the field of nuclear physics and chemistry. Some potential uses of dubnium are:
Production of superheavy elements
Dubnium is a transactinide element, and its synthesis and study are important for understanding the properties and behavior of superheavy elements. The study of dubnium may contribute to the development of new techniques for producing and studying other heavy elements.
Dubnium is used in fundamental research to explore the properties and behavior of atomic nuclei and the nature of matter. Its properties and behavior are important for understanding the fundamental nature of matter and the behavior of atomic nuclei.
Dubnium may have potential applications in radiography due to its high radioactivity. However, its instability and short half-life make it challenging to work with, and no practical applications have been developed yet.
Interesting facts about dubnium
Dubnium was first synthesized in 1968 by a team of Soviet scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. It was named after the location of the institute.
Dubnium has a very short half-life, with its most stable isotope having a half-life of only 34 seconds. This makes it challenging to study and work with.
Dubnium is typically synthesized by bombarding a target material, such as californium or americium, with a beam of accelerated ions. The resulting collisions can lead to the formation of dubnium isotopes.
There was a dispute over the naming of dubnium after its discovery, with the Soviet team proposing the name “nielsbohrium” after Danish physicist Niels Bohr, while a team of American scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory proposed the name “hahnium” after German chemist Otto Hahn. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) ultimately decided on the name dubnium.
Due to its high radioactivity and short half-life, dubnium does not have any practical applications outside of basic scientific research.
In 2000, a team of scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California discovered a new isotope of dubnium, dubnium-270, which has a longer half-life than any other known dubnium isotope at 1.2 minutes.