Sodium Element (Periodic Table)

Sodium
Sodium block

Sodium (Na) is a chemical element of the periodic table, located in group 1 and period 3, and has the atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal whose name comes from the English word “soda”.

Sodium is the sixth most common element on Earth, making about 2.6 percent of the planet’s crust. It can be found in a variety of minerals, like feldspar and sodalite.

Since sodium does not naturally occur, it must be made from other substances. There are 20 known isotopes of sodium, but only 23Na is stable.

group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
period
1 1
H
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Hydrogen
2
He
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Helium
2 3
Li
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Lithium
4
Be
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Beryllium
5
B
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Boron
6
C
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Carbon
7
N
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Nitrogen
8
O
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Oxygen
9
F
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Fluorine
10
Ne
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Neon
3 11
Na
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Sodium
12
Mg
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Magnesium
13
Al
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Aluminium
14
Si
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Silicon
15
P
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Phosphorus
16
S
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Sulfur
17
Cl
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Chlorine
18
Ar
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Argon
4 19
K
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Potassium
20
Ca
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Calcium
21
Sc
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Scandium
22
Ti
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Titanium
23
V
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Vanadium
24
Cr
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Chromium
25
Mn
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Manganese
26
Fe
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Iron
27
Co
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Cobalt
28
Ni
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Nickel
29
Cu
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Copper
30
Zn
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Zinc
31
Ga
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Gallium
32
Ge
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Germanium
33
As
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Arsenic
34
Se
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Selenium
35
Br
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Bromine
36
Kr
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Krypton
5 37
Rb
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Rubidium
38
Sr
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Strontium
39
Y
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Yttrium
40
Zr
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Zirconium
41
Nb
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Niobium
42
Mo
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Molybdenum
43
Tc
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Technetium
44
Ru
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Ruthenium
45
Rh
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Rhodium
46
Pd
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Palladium
47
Ag
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Silver
48
Cd
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Cadmium
49
In
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Indium
50
Sn
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Tin
51
Sb
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Antimony
52
Te
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Tellurium
53
I
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Iodine
54
Xe
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Xenon
6 55
Cs
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Caesium
56
Ba
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Barium
72
Hf
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Hafnium
73
Ta
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Tantalum
74
W
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Tungsten
75
Re
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Rhenium
76
Os
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Osmium
77
Ir
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Iridium
78
Pt
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Platinum
79
Au
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Gold
80
Hg
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Mercury
81
Tl
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Thallium
82
Pb
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Lead
83
Bi
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Bismuth
84
Po
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Polonium
85
At
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Astatine
86
Rn
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Radon
7 87
Fr
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Francium
88
Ra
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Radium
104
Rf
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Rutherfordium
105
Db
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Dubnium
106
Sg
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Seaborgium
107
Bh
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Bohrium
108
Hs
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Hassium
109
Mt
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Meitnerium
110
Ds
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Darmstadtium
111
Rg
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Roentgenium
112
Cn
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Copernicium
113
Nh
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Nihonium
114
Fl
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Flerovium
115
Mc
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Moscovium
116
Lv
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Livermorium
117
Ts
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Tennessine
118
Og
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Oganesson
57
La
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Lanthanum
58
Ce
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Cerium
59
Pr
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Praseodymium
60
Nd
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Neodymium
61
Pm
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Promethium
62
Sm
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Samarium
63
Eu
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Europium
64
Gd
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Gadolinium
65
Tb
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Terbium
66
Dy
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Dysprosium
67
Ho
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Holmium
68
Er
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Erbium
69
Tm
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Thulium
70
Yb
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Ytterbium
71
Lu
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Lutetium
89
Ac
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Actinium
90
Th
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Thorium
91
Pa
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Protactinium
92
U
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Uranium
93
Np
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Neptunium
94
Pu
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Plutonium
95
Am
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Americium
96
Cm
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Curium
97
Bk
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Berkelium
98
Cf
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Californium
99
Es
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Einsteinium
100
Fm
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Fermium
101
Md
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Mendelevium
102
No
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Nobelium
103
Lr
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Lawrencium
– s block

Sodium Element Information

Sodium Element
Sodium appearance | source: Wikipedia
Sodium Periodic Table
Sodium location on periodic table
Sodium is found in the first column of the periodic table below the lithium element.
Origin of name English word “soda”
Symbol Na
Atomic number (Z) 11
Atomic mass 22.989769 u
Block s-block
Group 1
Period 3
Classification Alkali metal
Atomic radius 186 pm
Covalent radius 166±9 pm
Van der Waals radius 227 pm
Melting point 97.794 ℃, 208.029 ℉, 370.944 K
Boiling point 882.940 ℃, 1621.292 ℉, 1156.090 K
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 1
Learn how to draw: Sodium Bohr Model
Crystal structure Body-centered cubic (bcc)
Phase at r.t Solid
Density near r.t 0.968 g/cm3
Main isotopes Sodium-23
Natural occurrence Primordial
Oxidation state +1
Electronegativity (Pauling scale) 0.93
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
11
12
11
Learn how to find: Sodium Protons Neutrons Electrons
Valence electrons 1
Learn how to find: Sodium Valence Electrons
CAS number 7440-23-5
Discovered by Humphry Davy in 1807

How was Sodium discovered?

The term sodium is supposed to derive from the Arabic suda, which means headache, because the headache-relieving qualities of sodium carbonate or soda were well known in ancient times.

Sir Humphry Davy was the first to create sodium in its elemental form in 1807, using electrolysis of fused sodium hydroxide (NaOH). He made this discovery known at the Bakerian session at the Royal Society of London on November 19, 1807.[1]

How is Sodium produced?

In the late 19th century, metallic sodium was first commercially manufactured by carbothermal reduction of sodium carbonate at 1100 ℃ as the first stage in the Deville process for the synthesis of aluminum.

In 1886, a similar process involving the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide was invented.

Nowadays, sodium is produced commercially by electrolyzing completely dry fused sodium chloride. Compared to the earlier Castner process (the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide), this method is more affordable.

Properties of Sodium

When Cut, Sodium's Silvery White Color Changes To Grayish White
When cut, sodium’s silvery white color changes to grayish white | source: Science Stock Footage

Sodium is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and can easily be cut with a knife.

At standard pressure and temperature, sodium is a soft silvery metal that reacts with air and becomes grayish white sodium oxide.

It never occurs in the free state in the crust of the Earth because it is so reactive. Sodium and its compounds glow yellow when exposed to flame.

Sodium (along with lithium and potassium) is one of only three metals that can float on water. And is the third-least dense of all elemental metals due to its low atomic mass and high atomic radius.

Where is Sodium found in Nature?

Because of its strong reactivity, sodium is never found as a pure element; instead, it can be found in a variety of minerals like cryolite, amphibole, soda niter (sodium nitrate), zeolite, etc.[2]

Sodium is the sixth most abundant element on Earth after oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, and calcium, with an earth’s crust abundance of 2.6%. Of the alkali group of metals, it is the most abundant.

The spectra of stars, including the Sun, and the interstellar medium have both shown the presence of sodium in atomic and ionic form.

Not just comets or meteoroids include sodium. Other solar system bodies like Mercury, Io, and the Moon also have sodium.[3]

Comet NEOWISE's Hidden Red Sodium Tail
Comet NEOWISE’s hidden red sodium tail | source: APOD

Some comets contain sodium tails, which were originally noticed in observations of Comet Hale-Bopp in 1997. Sodium has even been identified in the atmospheres of certain extrasolar planets.

What is Sodium Used for?

Sodium serves as a raw ingredient in the production of sodium hydride (NaH) and sodium borohydride (NaBH4).

It is widely employed in metallurgy as a deoxidant and as a reducing agent for the manufacture of calcium, zirconium, titanium, and other transition metals.

Sodium borohydride, sodium azide, indigo, and triphenylphosphine are primarily produced using metallic sodium.

Molten sodium has been used as a coolant in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors because it is a good heat-transfer fluid.

Outdoor places like parking lots, security checkpoints, airports, and other public spaces are lit by sodium vapor, which emits a dazzling yellow light.

Sodium chloride is extensively used for anti-icing and de-icing, added to food to improve flavor, and has also been used as a preservative to prevent food from spoiling.

In addition, sodium is used as a feedstock in chemical industries, as a water softener, and also as a desiccant due to its hygroscopic properties.

Interesting Facts about Sodium

Sodium is a highly reactive metal that ignites in water and does not react with oil or kerosene. So to prevent the reaction with water, it is stored in oil or kerosene.

Sodium is soft enough to be cut with a knife, and it is light enough that it can float on water.

Sodium Has A Bright Yellow Color Flame
Sodium has a bright yellow color flame | source: Fine Art America

Sodium burns with a bright yellow flame when it comes in contact with the air.

Sodium is the ninth most abundant element in the human body. The element sodium makes up roughly 0.10% to 0.15% of your body mass.

Sodium has only one stable isotope, 23Na.

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Related:

More Elements:

s block
p block
d block
f block
Barium Aluminium Bohrium Actinium
Beryllium Antimony Cadmium Americium
Caesium Argon Chromium Berkelium
Calcium Arsenic Cobalt Californium
Francium Astatine Copernicium Cerium
Helium Bismuth Copper Curium
Hydrogen Boron Darmstadtium Dysprosium
Lithium Bromine Dubnium Einsteinium
Magnesium Carbon Gold Erbium
Potassium Chlorine Hafnium Europium
Radium Flerovium Hassium Fermium
Rubidium Fluorine Iridium Gadolinium
Sodium Gallium Iron Holmium
Strontium Germanium Lawrencium Lanthanum
Indium Lutetium Mendelevium
Iodine Manganese Neodymium
Krypton Meitnerium Neptunium
Lead Mercury Nobelium
Livermorium Molybdenum Plutonium
Moscovium Nickel Praseodymium
Neon Niobium Promethium
Nihonium Osmium Protactinium
Nitrogen Palladium Samarium
Oganesson Platinum Terbium
Oxygen Rhenium Thorium
Phosphorus Rhodium Thulium
Polonium Roentgenium Uranium
Radon Ruthenium Ytterbium
Selenium Rutherfordium
Silicon Scandium
Sulfur Seaborgium
Tellurium Silver
Tennessine Tantalum
Thallium Technetium
Tin Titanium
Xenon Tungsten
Vanadium
Yttrium
Zinc
Zirconium

References:

1. Natrium (Sodium) – Elementymology & Elements Multidict

2. Sodium – Los Alamos National Laboratory

3. Chemical abundances determined from meteor spectra

External Links:

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