Sodium Element (Periodic Table)

Sodium

Sodium (Na) is a chemical element of the periodic table, located in group 1 and period 3, and has the atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal whose name comes from the English word soda. It is the sixth most abundant element on earth.

group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
period
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
– s block

Sodium Applications (or Uses)

Here are the applications (or uses) of sodium:

  • Sodium used in street lights can be seen as a yellow color when street lights glow up
  • Sodium is used as a coolant in some nuclear reactors
  • Sodium is added to food to improve flavor, and it is also used as a preservative to prevent food from spoil
  • Sodium is used to de-ice the roads in winter
  • Sodium is used as a feedstock in chemical industries
  • Sodium is used as a water softener
  • Sodium is used as a desiccant due to its hygroscopic properties
  • Sodium is used in the production of indigo dye

Sodium Facts

Here are the facts about sodium:

  • Sodium is a highly reactive metal that ignites in water and does not react with oil or kerosene. So to prevent the reaction with water, it is stored in oil or kerosene
  • Sodium is soft enough to be cut with a knife, and it is light enough that it can float on water
  • Sodium burns with a bright yellow flame when it comes in contact with the air
  • Sodium is the ninth most abundant element in the human body
  • Sodium has only one stable isotope: 23Na

FAQs on Sodium Element

Sodium
‣ What is the physical appearance of sodium?

Appearance: silvery white metallic
‣ When was sodium discovered and by whom?

Discovery and first isolation: Humphry Davy (1807)
‣ Where is sodium found on the periodic table?

Sodium Periodic Table

Location: Sodium is found in the first column of the periodic table below the lithium element.
‣ What is sodium’s atomic number?

Atomic number (Z): 11
‣ What is sodium’s symbol?

Symbol: Na
‣ What is sodium’s atomic weight?

Standard atomic weight: 22.98976928
‣ What block does sodium belong to?

Block: s-block
‣ What is sodium’s group number?

Group: 1 (hydrogen and alkali metals)
‣ What is sodium’s period number?

Period: 3
‣ What is the atomic radius of sodium?

Atomic radius: empirical: 186 pm
Covalent radius of sodium: 166±9 pm
Van der Waals radius of sodium: 227 pm
‣ What is sodium’s melting point?

Melting point: 370.944 K (97.794 °C, 208.029 °F)
‣ What is sodium’s boiling point?

Boiling point: 1156.090 K (882.940 °C, 1621.292 °F)
Sodium critical point: 2573 K, 35 MPa (extrapolated)
‣ How many electrons per shell does sodium have?

Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 1
‣ What is the electron configuration of sodium?

Electron configuration: [Ne] 3s1
‣ What is the ionization energy of sodium?

Ionization energies:
1st: 495.8 kJ/mol
2nd: 4562 kJ/mol
3rd: 6910.3 kJ/mol
‣ Is sodium solid at room temperature?

Phase (at r.t): solid
‣ What is sodium’s density?

Density (near r.t): 0.968 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p): 0.927 g/cm3
Sodium magnetic ordering: paramagnetic
Sodium natural occurrence: primordial
‣ What is the oxidation state of sodium?

Oxidation state: +1
‣ What is sodium’s electronegativity?

Electronegativity: Pauling scale: 0.93
Sodium heat of fusion: 2.60 kJ/mol
Sodium heat of vaporization: 97.42 kJ/mol
Sodium molar heat capacity: 28.230 J/(mol K)
Sodium molar magnetic susceptibility: +16.0 × 10-6 cm3/mol (298 K)
Speed of sound in sodium: 3200 m/s (at 20 °C)
‣ What type of structure does sodium have?

Crystal structure: body-centered cubic (bcc)
Sodium thermal expansion: 71 µm/(m.K) (at 25 °C)
Sodium thermal conductivity: 142 W/(m.K)
Electrical resistivity of sodium: 47.7 nΩ.m (at 20 °C)
‣ What is sodium’s hardness?

Mohs hardness: 0.5
Brinell hardness: 0.69 MPa
Young’s modulus of sodium: 10 GPa
Shear modulus of sodium: 3.3 GPa
Bulk modulus of sodium: 6.3 GPa
Sodium CAS number: 7440-23-5

‣ Sodium vapor pressure

Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)5546176978029461153

‣ How many isotopes does sodium have?

Main isotopes of sodium
IsotopeAbundanceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modeProduct
22Natrace2.602 yβ+22Ne
23Na100 %stable
24Natrace14.96 hβ24Mg

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