Sodium has 1 valence electron.
We can write the valence electrons of sodium using two different methods:
#1 Using periodic table
#2 Using electron configuration
Let’s break down each method in detail.
Using periodic table
Get the periodic table having the chemical elements marked on it as mentioned above.
Now mark the location of sodium on the periodic table.
Next, mark the group number of sodium on the periodic table.
The valence electrons of each main-group element can be determined by the column in which it is located.
(i.e., all group 1 elements have 1 valence electron, all group 2 elements have 2 valence electrons, skip the transition metals… then, all group 13 elements have 3 valence electrons, all group 14 elements have 4 valence electrons, and so on up to group 18 elements)
Since sodium is in group 1, it has 1 valence electron.
Using electron configuration
- First, write electron configuration of sodium
The electron configuration of sodium is [Ne] 3s1.
- Second, find highest energy level in electron configuration
In the above electron configuration, the highest energy level (3) is marked with green color.
- Finally, count electrons of that energy level
The 3rd energy level contains 3s subshell and it has 1 electron. So sodium has a total of 1 valence electron.
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