Period 2 element

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Period 2 element
Period 2 element | Image: Learnool

Period 2 elements are the chemical elements found in the second row or period of the periodic table. This row contains eight elements, starting from lithium (Li) and ending with neon (Ne). These elements have two electron shells, with the first shell containing two electrons and the second shell containing up to eight electrons. While most period 2 elements follow the octet rule, there are a few exceptions such as lithium and beryllium, which follow the duet rule, and boron is electron deficient and can only accommodate six electrons in its valence shell.

Period 2 elements exhibit a wide range of physical and chemical properties, which are determined by their atomic structures and electron configurations. These elements are notable for their high reactivity and ability to form a wide range of chemical compounds. For example, boron and carbon are known for their ability to form strong covalent bonds, while lithium and beryllium are highly reactive metals that readily form ionic compounds. Understanding these properties is important not only for basic scientific research but also for practical applications in fields such as materials science, electronics, and energy storage.

On periodic table

group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
period
1 1
H
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Hydrogen
2
He
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Helium
2 3
Li
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Lithium
4
Be
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Beryllium
5
B
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Boron
6
C
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Carbon
7
N
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Nitrogen
8
O
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Oxygen
9
F
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Fluorine
10
Ne
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Neon
3 11
Na
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Sodium
12
Mg
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Magnesium
13
Al
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Aluminium
14
Si
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Silicon
15
P
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Phosphorus
16
S
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Sulfur
17
Cl
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Chlorine
18
Ar
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Argon
4 19
K
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Potassium
20
Ca
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Calcium
21
Sc
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Scandium
22
Ti
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Titanium
23
V
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Vanadium
24
Cr
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Chromium
25
Mn
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Manganese
26
Fe
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Iron
27
Co
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Cobalt
28
Ni
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Nickel
29
Cu
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Copper
30
Zn
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Zinc
31
Ga
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Gallium
32
Ge
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Germanium
33
As
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Arsenic
34
Se
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Selenium
35
Br
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Bromine
36
Kr
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Krypton
5 37
Rb
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Rubidium
38
Sr
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Strontium
39
Y
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Yttrium
40
Zr
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Zirconium
41
Nb
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Niobium
42
Mo
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Molybdenum
43
Tc
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Technetium
44
Ru
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Ruthenium
45
Rh
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Rhodium
46
Pd
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Palladium
47
Ag
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Silver
48
Cd
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Cadmium
49
In
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Indium
50
Sn
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Tin
51
Sb
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Antimony
52
Te
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Tellurium
53
I
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Iodine
54
Xe
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Xenon
6 55
Cs
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Caesium
56
Ba
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Barium
72
Hf
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Hafnium
73
Ta
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Tantalum
74
W
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Tungsten
75
Re
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Rhenium
76
Os
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Osmium
77
Ir
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Iridium
78
Pt
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Platinum
79
Au
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Gold
80
Hg
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Mercury
81
Tl
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Thallium
82
Pb
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Lead
83
Bi
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Bismuth
84
Po
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Polonium
85
At
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Astatine
86
Rn
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Radon
7 87
Fr
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Francium
88
Ra
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Radium
104
Rf
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Rutherfordium
105
Db
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Dubnium
106
Sg
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Seaborgium
107
Bh
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Bohrium
108
Hs
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Hassium
109
Mt
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Meitnerium
110
Ds
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Darmstadtium
111
Rg
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Roentgenium
112
Cn
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Copernicium
113
Nh
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Nihonium
114
Fl
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Flerovium
115
Mc
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Moscovium
116
Lv
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Livermorium
117
Ts
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Tennessine
118
Og
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Oganesson
57
La
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Lanthanum
58
Ce
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Cerium
59
Pr
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Praseodymium
60
Nd
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Neodymium
61
Pm
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Promethium
62
Sm
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Samarium
63
Eu
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Europium
64
Gd
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Gadolinium
65
Tb
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Terbium
66
Dy
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Dysprosium
67
Ho
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Holmium
68
Er
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Erbium
69
Tm
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Thulium
70
Yb
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Ytterbium
71
Lu
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Lutetium
89
Ac
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Actinium
90
Th
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Thorium
91
Pa
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Protactinium
92
U
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Uranium
93
Np
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Neptunium
94
Pu
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Plutonium
95
Am
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Americium
96
Cm
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Curium
97
Bk
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Berkelium
98
Cf
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Californium
99
Es
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Einsteinium
100
Fm
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Fermium
101
Md
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Mendelevium
102
No
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Nobelium
103
Lr
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Lawrencium
2 – period 2 element

Period 2 is the second row of elements on the periodic table. It contains eight elements, namely lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, and neon.

Period 2 elements
Lithium (Li)
s block
Beryllium (Be)
s block
Boron (B)
p block
Carbon (C)
p block
Nitrogen (N)
p block
Oxygen (O)
p block
Fluorine (F)
p block
Neon (Ne)
p block

Element information

Lithium

Lithium appearance | Image: Wikipedia

Lithium is a soft, silvery-white metal that is highly reactive and flammable. It is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element, with a density only about half that of water. Lithium is an important element for a number of industrial and technological applications, including the production of batteries, ceramics, glass, and aluminum. It is also used in medicine, as lithium carbonate is a common treatment for bipolar disorder.

Beryllium

Beryllium appearance | Image: Wikipedia

Beryllium is a hard, grayish-white metal that is brittle at room temperature but becomes ductile and malleable when heated. It is a very light and strong metal with excellent thermal conductivity, and is used in a variety of aerospace and defense applications, as well as in X-ray equipment and nuclear reactors. However, beryllium is also highly toxic and can cause a serious lung disease known as berylliosis, so it must be handled with care.

Boron

Boron appearance | Image: Wikipedia

Boron is a metalloid element that is essential for the growth and development of plants, and is also used in a variety of industrial applications. It is a hard and brittle material with a high melting point, and can be found in the form of borax or boric acid. Boron compounds are used in the production of glass, ceramics, fertilizers, and semiconductors, as well as in nuclear reactors and other high-tech applications.

Carbon

Carbon appearance | Image: Wikipedia

Carbon is a non-metallic element that is essential to life and the basis of all organic compounds. It is the fourth most abundant element in the universe and can be found in a variety of forms, including diamond, graphite, and amorphous carbon. Carbon has a wide range of industrial and technological applications, including the production of steel, plastics, and carbon fibers, as well as in energy storage and conversion devices such as batteries and fuel cells.

Nitrogen

Nitrogen appearance | Image: Wikipedia

Nitrogen is a non-metallic element that makes up about 78% of the Earth’s atmosphere. It is a colorless, odorless gas that is essential for the growth and development of living organisms, and is also used in a variety of industrial applications. Nitrogen is used in the production of fertilizers, explosives, and other chemicals, as well as in cryogenics and other high-tech applications.

Oxygen

Oxygen appearance | Image: Wikipedia

Oxygen is a non-metallic element that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is a colorless, odorless gas that makes up about 21% of the Earth’s atmosphere, and is also found in a variety of other forms, including water and various oxides. Oxygen is used in a wide range of industrial and medical applications, including the production of steel, glass, and chemicals, as well as in respiratory therapy and other medical treatments.

Fluorine

Fluorine appearance | Image: Wikipedia

Fluorine is a highly reactive nonmetal element that is the most electronegative element in the periodic table. It is a pale yellow gas at room temperature, and is highly toxic and corrosive. Fluorine is used in a variety of industrial and technological applications, including the production of uranium, plastics, and various chemicals. It is also used in dental treatments, as fluorine compounds are added to toothpaste and water supplies to prevent tooth decay.

Neon

Neon appearance | Image: Wikipedia

Neon is a noble gas that is colorless, odorless, and nearly inert under normal conditions. It is the second lightest noble gas and the second least reactive element in the periodic table, after helium. Neon is used in a variety of lighting applications, including neon signs and fluorescent lamps. It is also used in cryogenics and as a coolant in gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Neon has no known biological role and is considered to be non-toxic, making it a safe choice for various industrial and commercial applications.

Physical properties

Period 2 elements share some common physical properties, such as small atomic radii, high ionization energies, and low melting and boiling points. This is due to the fact that the atomic radii of these elements decrease from left to right across the period. The ionization energies of period 2 elements increase from left to right across the period, which means that it becomes increasingly difficult to remove an electron as you move from left to right across the period. Additionally, the electronegativity of these elements generally increases from left to right, with fluorine being the most electronegative element in the period.

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Learnool.com was founded by Deep Rana, who is a mechanical engineer by profession and a blogger by passion. He has a good conceptual knowledge on different educational topics and he provides the same on this website. He loves to learn something new everyday and believes that the best utilization of free time is developing a new skill.

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