Germanium

Germanium
Germanium block

Germanium (Ge) is a chemical element of the periodic table, located in the group 14 and the period 4, and has the atomic number 32. It is a hard, lustrous, grayish-white metalloid, whose name comes from the Latin word “Germania”, which means Germany, homeland of the discoverer. It is a member of the carbon group.

On periodic table

group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
period
1 1
H
Click on the image to learn more!

Hydrogen
2
He
Click on the image to learn more!

Helium
2 3
Li
Click on the image to learn more!

Lithium
4
Be
Click on the image to learn more!

Beryllium
5
B
Click on the image to learn more!

Boron
6
C
Click on the image to learn more!

Carbon
7
N
Click on the image to learn more!

Nitrogen
8
O
Click on the image to learn more!

Oxygen
9
F
Click on the image to learn more!

Fluorine
10
Ne
Click on the image to learn more!

Neon
3 11
Na
Click on the image to learn more!

Sodium
12
Mg
Click on the image to learn more!

Magnesium
13
Al
Click on the image to learn more!

Aluminium
14
Si
Click on the image to learn more!

Silicon
15
P
Click on the image to learn more!

Phosphorus
16
S
Click on the image to learn more!

Sulfur
17
Cl
Click on the image to learn more!

Chlorine
18
Ar
Click on the image to learn more!

Argon
4 19
K
Click on the image to learn more!

Potassium
20
Ca
Click on the image to learn more!

Calcium
21
Sc
Click on the image to learn more!

Scandium
22
Ti
Click on the image to learn more!

Titanium
23
V
Click on the image to learn more!

Vanadium
24
Cr
Click on the image to learn more!

Chromium
25
Mn
Click on the image to learn more!

Manganese
26
Fe
Click on the image to learn more!

Iron
27
Co
Click on the image to learn more!

Cobalt
28
Ni
Click on the image to learn more!

Nickel
29
Cu
Click on the image to learn more!

Copper
30
Zn
Click on the image to learn more!

Zinc
31
Ga
Click on the image to learn more!

Gallium
32
Ge
Germanium
33
As
Click on the image to learn more!

Arsenic
34
Se
Click on the image to learn more!

Selenium
35
Br
Click on the image to learn more!

Bromine
36
Kr
Click on the image to learn more!

Krypton
5 37
Rb
Click on the image to learn more!

Rubidium
38
Sr
Click on the image to learn more!

Strontium
39
Y
Click on the image to learn more!

Yttrium
40
Zr
Click on the image to learn more!

Zirconium
41
Nb
Click on the image to learn more!

Niobium
42
Mo
Click on the image to learn more!

Molybdenum
43
Tc
Click on the image to learn more!

Technetium
44
Ru
Click on the image to learn more!

Ruthenium
45
Rh
Click on the image to learn more!

Rhodium
46
Pd
Click on the image to learn more!

Palladium
47
Ag
Click on the image to learn more!

Silver
48
Cd
Click on the image to learn more!

Cadmium
49
In
Click on the image to learn more!

Indium
50
Sn
Click on the image to learn more!

Tin
51
Sb
Click on the image to learn more!

Antimony
52
Te
Click on the image to learn more!

Tellurium
53
I
Click on the image to learn more!

Iodine
54
Xe
Click on the image to learn more!

Xenon
6 55
Cs
Click on the image to learn more!

Caesium
56
Ba
Click on the image to learn more!

Barium
72
Hf
Click on the image to learn more!

Hafnium
73
Ta
Click on the image to learn more!

Tantalum
74
W
Click on the image to learn more!

Tungsten
75
Re
Click on the image to learn more!

Rhenium
76
Os
Click on the image to learn more!

Osmium
77
Ir
Click on the image to learn more!

Iridium
78
Pt
Click on the image to learn more!

Platinum
79
Au
Click on the image to learn more!

Gold
80
Hg
Click on the image to learn more!

Mercury
81
Tl
Click on the image to learn more!

Thallium
82
Pb
Click on the image to learn more!

Lead
83
Bi
Click on the image to learn more!

Bismuth
84
Po
Click on the image to learn more!

Polonium
85
At
Click on the image to learn more!

Astatine
86
Rn
Click on the image to learn more!

Radon
7 87
Fr
Click on the image to learn more!

Francium
88
Ra
Click on the image to learn more!

Radium
104
Rf
Click on the image to learn more!

Rutherfordium
105
Db
Click on the image to learn more!

Dubnium
106
Sg
Click on the image to learn more!

Seaborgium
107
Bh
Click on the image to learn more!

Bohrium
108
Hs
Click on the image to learn more!

Hassium
109
Mt
Click on the image to learn more!

Meitnerium
110
Ds
Click on the image to learn more!

Darmstadtium
111
Rg
Click on the image to learn more!

Roentgenium
112
Cn
Click on the image to learn more!

Copernicium
113
Nh
Click on the image to learn more!

Nihonium
114
Fl
Click on the image to learn more!

Flerovium
115
Mc
Click on the image to learn more!

Moscovium
116
Lv
Click on the image to learn more!

Livermorium
117
Ts
Click on the image to learn more!

Tennessine
118
Og
Click on the image to learn more!

Oganesson
57
La
Click on the image to learn more!

Lanthanum
58
Ce
Click on the image to learn more!

Cerium
59
Pr
Click on the image to learn more!

Praseodymium
60
Nd
Click on the image to learn more!

Neodymium
61
Pm
Click on the image to learn more!

Promethium
62
Sm
Click on the image to learn more!

Samarium
63
Eu
Click on the image to learn more!

Europium
64
Gd
Click on the image to learn more!

Gadolinium
65
Tb
Click on the image to learn more!

Terbium
66
Dy
Click on the image to learn more!

Dysprosium
67
Ho
Click on the image to learn more!

Holmium
68
Er
Click on the image to learn more!

Erbium
69
Tm
Click on the image to learn more!

Thulium
70
Yb
Click on the image to learn more!

Ytterbium
71
Lu
Click on the image to learn more!

Lutetium
89
Ac
Click on the image to learn more!

Actinium
90
Th
Click on the image to learn more!

Thorium
91
Pa
Click on the image to learn more!

Protactinium
92
U
Click on the image to learn more!

Uranium
93
Np
Click on the image to learn more!

Neptunium
94
Pu
Click on the image to learn more!

Plutonium
95
Am
Click on the image to learn more!

Americium
96
Cm
Click on the image to learn more!

Curium
97
Bk
Click on the image to learn more!

Berkelium
98
Cf
Click on the image to learn more!

Californium
99
Es
Click on the image to learn more!

Einsteinium
100
Fm
Click on the image to learn more!

Fermium
101
Md
Click on the image to learn more!

Mendelevium
102
No
Click on the image to learn more!

Nobelium
103
Lr
Click on the image to learn more!

Lawrencium
– p block

Germanium is a p-block element, situated in the fourteenth column and the fourth row of the periodic table. Its atomic number is 32 and its symbol is Ge.

Element information

Germanium Element
Germanium appearance | source: Wikipedia
Germanium Periodic Table
Germanium location on periodic table
Germanium is found in the fourth row of the periodic table below the silicon element.
Origin of name Latin word “Germania” (which means Germany)
Symbol Ge
Atomic number (Z) 32
Atomic mass 72.64 u
Block p-block
Group 14 (carbon group)
Period 4
Classification Metalloid
Atomic radius 122 pm
Covalent radius 122 pm
Van der Waals radius 211 pm
Melting point 938.25 ℃, 1720.85 ℉, 1211.40 K
Boiling point 2833 ℃, 5131 ℉, 3106 K
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Learn how to write: Germanium electron configuration
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 4
Learn how to draw: Germanium Bohr model
Crystal structure Face-centered diamond-cubic
Phase at r.t Solid
Density near r.t 5.323 g/cm3
Main isotopes Germanium-70, Germanium-72, Germanium-73, Germanium-74
Natural occurrence Primordial
Oxidation state -4, +2, +4
Electronegativity (Pauling scale) 2.01
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
32
41
32
Learn how to find: Germanium protons neutrons electrons
Valence electrons 4
Learn how to find: Germanium valence electrons
CAS number 7440-56-4
Discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886

History

Clemens Winkler | source: Wikipedia

Germanium was first predicted by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869. He named it eka-silicon and predicted its properties based on its position in the periodic table. In 1886, Clemens Winkler, a German chemist, discovered germanium while analyzing a sample of the mineral argyrodite. Winkler isolated the element by repeatedly extracting it with acid and then precipitating it with hydrogen sulfide.

In the early 1900s, germanium was primarily used in research laboratories, but its use expanded during World War Ⅱ. It was used as a semiconductor in early transistors and as a material for rectifiers and diodes in electronic applications. Germanium was a key component in the development of radar and other military technologies during the war.

In the post-war period, germanium continued to be used in electronics, but its use declined with the development of silicon-based semiconductors. Today, germanium is primarily used as a substrate material in the production of infrared optical devices, such as lenses and prisms. It is also used as a dopant in the production of some types of transistors and diodes.

Occurrence and production

Germanium is a rare element, and it is not found in its pure form in nature. It mainly occurs in minerals such as germanite, argyrodite, and zinc ores. Germanium is also present in coal deposits, and the ash produced from burning coal is a major source of germanium. Additionally, it is found in some copper, lead, and silver ores.

The production of germanium involves several steps. Initially, it is extracted from the ore using a combination of crushing, grinding, and flotation processes. Once the germanium-containing concentrate is obtained, it is further processed through a series of steps to purify the germanium.

The purification process involves the use of multiple techniques, including distillation, zone refining, and fractional crystallization. The final product is typically a high-purity germanium ingot, which can be further processed into various forms such as powder, pellets, or sputtering targets. Germanium is also produced as a by-product of zinc and copper smelting, and its recovery from these sources is an important secondary source of germanium production.

Properties

Germanium is a hard, lustrous, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon.

Germanium is a semiconductor, with an electrical conductivity between that of a metal and an insulator. Its conductivity increases slightly with increased temperature.

It has a diamond-like crystal structure and is brittle and easily fractured.

Germanium is stable in air and water but reacts with concentrated nitric acid and hot concentrated sulfuric acid.

It has a relatively high density of 5.323 g/cm3 and a melting point of 938.25 ℃.

Germanium has four valence electrons in its outermost shell, making it an important material for use in transistors, solar cells, and other electronic applications.

It is also used in the production of alloys, as a catalyst in some chemical reactions, and in some medical imaging techniques.

Applications

Germanium is an important material used in the production of semiconductors, particularly in the manufacturing of transistors, diodes, and other electronic devices.

Germanium is used as a dopant in the production of optical fibers, which are used in telecommunications and other applications that require the transmission of data over long distances.

Germanium is also used as a material for making lenses and windows in infrared systems.

Germanium is used in the production of some types of solar cells.

Germanium compounds are used as catalysts in the production of certain polymers.

Germanium is used as a detector material for gamma radiation in the nuclear industry.

Germanium is used as an alloying agent with other metals, such as iron and copper, to improve their properties.

Some germanium compounds are used as flame retardants in the manufacturing of plastics and other materials.

Interesting facts

Germanium was predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev in his 1869 periodic table before its discovery in 1886 by Clemens Winkler.

Germanium is a semiconductor, which means it can conduct electricity under certain conditions. It has been used in the development of transistors and other electronic devices.

Germanium is named after Germany, where it was first discovered. However, it was also independently discovered in the United States around the same time.

Germanium is a relatively rare element, making up only about 1.6 parts per million of the Earth’s crust.

Germanium has some interesting optical properties, including the ability to transmit infrared light while blocking visible light. This makes it useful in optical applications such as lenses and filters.

Germanium is a brittle and hard material, with a Mohs hardness of around 6. It has a high melting point of 938.25 ℃ and a boiling point of 2833 ℃.

Germanium has some potential medical applications, including as a contrast agent in imaging and as a possible cancer treatment.

Germanium is used in some types of solar cells, as well as in some types of thermoelectric devices for converting heat into electricity.

Related

More elements

s block
p block
d block
f block
Barium Aluminium Bohrium Actinium
Beryllium Antimony Cadmium Americium
Caesium Argon Chromium Berkelium
Calcium Arsenic Cobalt Californium
Francium Astatine Copernicium Cerium
Helium Bismuth Copper Curium
Hydrogen Boron Darmstadtium Dysprosium
Lithium Bromine Dubnium Einsteinium
Magnesium Carbon Gold Erbium
Potassium Chlorine Hafnium Europium
Radium Flerovium Hassium Fermium
Rubidium Fluorine Iridium Gadolinium
Sodium Gallium Iron Holmium
Strontium Germanium Lawrencium Lanthanum
Indium Lutetium Mendelevium
Iodine Manganese Neodymium
Krypton Meitnerium Neptunium
Lead Mercury Nobelium
Livermorium Molybdenum Plutonium
Moscovium Nickel Praseodymium
Neon Niobium Promethium
Nihonium Osmium Protactinium
Nitrogen Palladium Samarium
Oganesson Platinum Terbium
Oxygen Rhenium Thorium
Phosphorus Rhodium Thulium
Polonium Roentgenium Uranium
Radon Ruthenium Ytterbium
Selenium Rutherfordium
Silicon Scandium
Sulfur Seaborgium
Tellurium Silver
Tennessine Tantalum
Thallium Technetium
Tin Titanium
Xenon Tungsten
Vanadium
Yttrium
Zinc
Zirconium

External links

Deep

Learnool.com was founded by Deep Rana, who is a mechanical engineer by profession and a blogger by passion. He has a good conceptual knowledge on different educational topics and he provides the same on this website. He loves to learn something new everyday and believes that the best utilization of free time is developing a new skill.

Leave a Comment