Germanium Element (Periodic Table)

Germanium

Germanium (Ge) is a chemical element of the periodic table, located in the group 14 and the period 4, and has the atomic number 32. It is a hard, lustrous, grayish-white metalloid, whose name comes from the Latin word “Germania”, which means Germany, homeland of the discoverer. It is a member of the carbon group.

group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
period
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
– p block

FAQs on Germanium Element

Germanium
‣ What does germanium look like?

Appearance: greyish-white
‣ When was germanium discovered and by whom?

Prediction: Dmitri Mendeleev (1869)
Discovery: Clemens Winkler (1886)
‣ Where is germanium found on the periodic table?

Germanium Periodic Table

Location: Germanium is found in the fourth row of the periodic table below the silicon element.
‣ What’s the atomic mass number for germanium?

Atomic number (Z): 32
‣ What is the symbol of germanium?

Symbol: Ge
Germanium atomic weight: 72.630
‣ What block does germanium belong to?

Block: p-block
‣ What group does germanium belong to?

Group: 14 (carbon group)
‣ What period is germanium in on the periodic table?

Period: 4
‣ What is the atomic radius of germanium?

Atomic radius: empirical: 122 pm
Germanium covalent radius: 122 pm
Germanium Van der Waals radius: 211 pm
‣ What is germanium’s melting point?

Melting point: 1211.40 K (938.25 °C, 1720.85 °F)
‣ What is germanium’s boiling point?

Boiling point: 3106 K (2833 °C, 5131 °F)
‣ How many electron shells does germanium have?

Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 4
‣ What is germanium electron configuration?

Electron configuration: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
‣ What is the band gap of germanium?

Band gap: 0.67 eV (at 300 K)
‣ What is the ionization energy of germanium?

Ionization energies:
1st: 762 kJ/mol
2nd: 1537.5 kJ/mol
3rd: 3302.1 kJ/mol
‣ What is the phase of germanium?

Phase (at r.t): solid
‣ What is the density of germanium?

Density (near r.t): 5.323 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p): 5.60 g/cm3
Germanium magnetic ordering: diamagnetic
Germanium natural occurrence: primordial
Germanium oxidation state: +2, +4
‣ What’s the electronegativity of germanium?

Electronegativity: Pauling scale: 2.01
Germanium poisson’s ratio: 0.26
Germanium heat of fusion: 36.94 kJ/mol
Germanium heat of vaporization: 334 kJ/mol
Germanium molar heat capacity: 23.222 J/(mol K)
Germanium molar magnetic susceptibility: -76.84 × 10-6 cm3/mol
Speed of sound in germanium: 5400 m/s (at 20 °C)
Germanium crystal structure: face-centered diamond-cubic
Thermal expansion of germanium: 6.0 µm/(m.K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity of germanium: 60.2 W/(m.K)
Germanium electrical resistivity: 1 Ω.m (at 20 °C)
‣ What is the hardness of germanium?

Mohs hardness: 6.0
Young’s modulus of germanium: 103 GPa
Shear modulus of germanium: 41 GPa
Bulk modulus of germanium: 75 GPa
Germanium CAS number: 7440-56-4

‣ Germanium vapor pressure

Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)164418142023228726333104

‣ How many isotopes does germanium have?

Main isotopes of germanium
IsotopeAbundanceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modeProduct
68Gesyn270.85 dε68Ga
70Ge20.52 %stable
71Gesyn11.3 dε71Ga
72Ge27.45 %stable
73Ge7.76 %stable
74Ge36.7 %stable
76Ge7.75 %1.78 × 1021 yββ76Se

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