Silicon Element (Periodic Table)

Silicon

Silicon (Si) is a chemical element of the periodic table, located in the group 14 and the period 3, and is having the atomic number 14. It is a hard, brittle, lustrous, dark-grey metalloid, whose name comes from the Latin word “silex” or “silicis”, which means flint or hard stone. It is the second most abundant element on earth. It is a member of the carbon group.

group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
period
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
– p block

FAQs on Silicon Element

Silicon
‣ What does silicon look like?

Appearance: crystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces
‣ When was silicon discovered and who discovered it?

Prediction: Antoine Lavoisier (1787)
Discovery and first isolation: Jons Jacob Berzelius (1823)
Named by: Thomas Thomson (1817)
‣ Where is silicon located on the periodic table?

Silicon Periodic Table

Location: Silicon is found in the third row of the periodic table below the carbon element.
‣ What is silicon’s atomic number?

Atomic number (Z): 14
‣ What is the chemical symbol for silicon?

Symbol: Si
‣ What is the atomic weight of silicon?

Standard atomic weight: [28.084, 28.086] conventional: 28.085
‣ What block is silicon in the periodic table?

Block: p-block
‣ What group is silicon in on the periodic table?

Group: 14 (carbon group)
‣ What period is silicon in on the periodic table?

Period: 3
‣ What is the atomic radius of silicon?

Atomic radius: empirical: 111 pm
Silicon covalent radius: 111 pm
Silicon Van der Waals radius: 210 pm
‣ What is silicon melting point?

Melting point: 1687 K (1414 °C, 2577 °F)
‣ What is silicon’s boiling point?

Boiling point: 3538 K (3265 °C, 5909 °F)
‣ How many electron shells does silicon have?

Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 4
‣ What is the ground state electron configuration of silicon?

Electron configuration: [Ne] 3s2 3p2
‣ What is the silicon band gap?

Band gap: 1.12 eV (at 300 K)
‣ What is silicon ionization energy?

Ionization energies:
1st: 786.5 kJ/mol
2nd: 1577.1 kJ/mol
3rd: 3231.6 kJ/mol
‣ What is the phase of silicon?

Phase (at r.t): solid
‣ What is the density of silicon?

Density (near r.t): 2.3290 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p): 2.57 g/cm3
Silicon magnetic ordering: diamagnetic
Silicon natural occurrence: primordial
‣ What is the silicon oxidation state?

Oxidation state: -4, +2, +4
‣ What is the electronegativity of silicon?

Electronegativity: Pauling scale: 1.90
Silicon poisson’s ratio: 0.064-0.28
Silicon heat of fusion: 50.21 kJ/mol
Silicon heat of vaporization: 383 kJ/mol
Silicon molar heat capacity: 19.789 J/(mol K)
Silicon molar magnetic susceptibility: -3.9 × 10-6 cm3/mol (298 K)
Speed of sound in silicon: 8433 m/s (at 20 °C)
‣ What is the crystal structure of silicon?

Crystal structure: face-centered cubic (fcc)
Thermal expansion of silicon: 2.6 µm/(m.K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity of silicon: 149 W/(m.K)
Silicon electrical resistivity: 2.3 × 103 Ω.m (at 20 °C)
‣ What is the hardness of silicon?

Mohs hardness: 6.5
Young’s modulus of silicon: 130-188 GPa
Shear modulus of silicon: 51-80 GPa
Bulk modulus of silicon: 97.6 GPa
Silicon CAS number: 7440-21-3

‣ Silicon vapor pressure

Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)190821022339263630213537

‣ How many isotopes does silicon have?

Main isotopes of silicon
IsotopeAbundanceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modeProduct
28Si92.2 %stable
29Si4.7 %stable
30Si3.1 %stable
31Sitrace2.62 hβ31P
32Sitrace153 yβ32P

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