Potassium Element (Periodic Table)

Potassium

Potassium (K) is a chemical element of the periodic table, located in group 1 and period 4, having the atomic number 19. It is a soft, silvery grey alkali metal whose name comes from the English word potash. It is the eighth-most abundant element on earth.

group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
period
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
– s block

Potassium Applications (or Uses)

Here are the applications (or uses) of potassium:

  • Potassium is used in fertilizers in the form of chloride
  • Potassium is used as a bleaching agent in the textile industry and also used in the tanning of leather
  • Potassium is used as a flavor enhancer in food, and it is also used as a preservative to prevent food from spoil
  • Potassium is used as a medication to prevent or treat hypokalemia (low blood levels of potassium)
  • Potassium is used as an oxidizing agent in gunpowder
  • Potassium is used in color TV tubes and fluorescent lamps
  • Potassium is used as a drying agent in laboratories
  • Potassium is used in explosives, fireworks, and matches
  • Potassium is used in the manufacture of glass, liquid soap, and detergent
  • Potassium is used as a heat transfer medium

Potassium Facts

Here are the facts about potassium:

  • Potassium is the seventh most abundant element in the human body
  • Potassium was the first metal discovered by electrolysis
  • Potassium is less dense than water, so it floats on water
  • Potassium burns with a lilac-colored flame
  • Potassium is the second least dense metal after lithium

FAQs on Potassium Element

Potassium
‣ What is the appearance of potassium?

Appearance: silvery grey
‣ When was potassium discovered and by whom?

Discovery and first isolation: Humphry Davy (1807)
‣ Where is potassium found on the periodic table?

Potassium Periodic Table

Location: Potassium is found in the first column of the periodic table below the sodium element.
‣ What is potassium’s atomic number?

Atomic number (Z): 19
‣ What’s the symbol for potassium?

Symbol: K
‣ What is the atomic weight of potassium?

Standard atomic weight: 39.0983
‣ Which block does potassium belong to?

Block: s-block
‣ What group does potassium belong to?

Group: 1 (hydrogen and alkali metals)
‣ Which period does potassium belong to?

Period: 4
‣ What is potassium’s atomic radius?

Atomic radius: empirical: 227 pm
Covalent radius of potassium: 203±12 pm
Van der Waals radius of potassium: 275 pm
‣ What is potassium’s melting point?

Melting point: 336.7 K (63.5 °C, 146.3 °F)
‣ What is potassium’s boiling point?

Boiling point: 1032 K (759 °C, 1398 °F)
Potassium critical point: 2223 K, 16 MPa
‣ How many electron shells does potassium have?

Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 8, 1
‣ What is potassium’s electron configuration?

Electron configuration: [Ar] 4s1
‣ What is potassium ionization energy?

Ionization energies:
1st: 418.8 kJ/mol
2nd: 3052 kJ/mol
3rd: 4420 kJ/mol
‣ What is the phase of potassium?

Phase (at r.t): solid
‣ What is potassium’s density?

Density (near r.t): 0.89 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p): 0.828 g/cm3
Potassium magnetic ordering: paramagnetic
Potassium natural occurrence: primordial
‣ What is the oxidation state of potassium?

Oxidation state: +1
‣ What is potassium’s electronegativity?

Electronegativity: Pauling scale: 0.82
Potassium heat of fusion: 2.33 kJ/mol
Potassium heat of vaporization: 76.9 kJ/mol
Potassium molar heat capacity: 29.6 J/(mol K)
Potassium molar magnetic susceptibility: +20.8 × 10-6 cm3/mol (298 K)
Speed of sound in potassium: 2000 m/s (at 20 °C)
‣ What type of structure does potassium have?

Crystal structure: body-centered cubic (bcc)
Thermal expansion of potassium: 83.3 µm/(m.K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity of potassium: 102.5 W/(m.K)
Potassium electrical resistivity: 72 nΩ.m (at 20 °C)
‣ What is the hardness of potassium?

Mohs hardness: 0.4
Brinell hardness: 0.363 MPa
Young’s modulus of potassium: 3.53 GPa
Shear modulus of potassium: 1.3 GPa
Bulk modulus of potassium: 3.1 GPa
Potassium CAS number: 7444-09-7

‣ How many isotopes does potassium have?

Main isotopes of potassium
IsotopeAbundanceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modeProduct
39K93.258 %stable
40K0.012 %1.248 × 109 yβ
ε
β+
40ca
40Ar
40Ar
41K6.730 %stable

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