Lithium Element (Periodic Table)

Lithium

Lithium (Li) is a chemical element of the periodic table, located in group 1 and period 2, having the atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal whose name comes from the Greek word “lithos” (which means stone). It is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element.

group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
period
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
– s block

Lithium Applications (or Uses)

Here are the applications (or uses) of lithium:

  • Lithium is used in lithium grease as a lubricant to reduce the friction in a garage door, car hinge, ball joint, etc.
  • Lithium is used in ceramics as it reduces the thermal expansion and increases the strength of a ceramic material
  • Lithium is used to make rechargeable batteries for mobile phones, laptops, electric vehicles, etc.
  • Lithium is used as an additive in the casting process to increase fluidity and reduce veining
  • Compounds of lithium are used as a pyrotechnic colorant to give a red color to fireworks
  • Lithium is used in silicon nanowires
  • Military uses lithium as a fuel in thermonuclear weapons
  • Lithium is used in the medical sector to treat bipolar disorder (also known as manic depression)
  • Lithium chloride and lithium bromide are the hygroscopic materials used as desiccants for gas streams
  • Lithium is used as a neutron absorber in nuclear fusion
  • Lithium fluoride is used in optics for infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV) applications
  • Lithium present in organolithium compound is used in the production of polymer and fine chemicals
  • Lithium is used as an alloy with aluminum and magnesium to improve their strength

Lithium Facts

Here are the facts about lithium:

  • Lithium has the lowest density among all metals. Its density is about half that of water, so it floats on water
  • Lithium is soft enough to be cut with a knife
  • Lithium burns with a red-colored flame when it comes in contact with the air
  • Lithium never occurs freely in nature and is available only in igneous rocks
  • Lithium reacts vigorously with air and water, so it is stored in oil to prevent the reaction with water

FAQs on Lithium Element

Lithium
‣ What does lithium look like?

Appearance: silvery-white
‣ When was lithium discovered and by whom?

Discovery: Johan August Arfwedson (1817)
First isolation: William Thomas Brande (1821)
‣ Where is lithium found on the periodic table?

Lithium Periodic Table

Location: Lithium is found in the first column of the periodic table below the hydrogen element.
‣ What is the atomic number of lithium?

Atomic number (Z): 3
‣ What’s the symbol for lithium?

Symbol: Li
‣ What is the atomic weight of lithium?

Standard atomic weight: [6.938, 6.997] conventional: 6.94
‣ What block does lithium belong to?

Block: s-block
‣ What is the family or group of lithium?

Group: 1 (hydrogen and alkali metals)
‣ Which period does lithium belong to?

Period: 2
‣ What is the atomic radius of lithium?

Atomic radius: empirical: 152 pm
‣ What is the covalent radius of lithium?

Covalent radius: 128±7 pm
Lithium Van der Waals radius: 182 pm
‣ What is lithium’s melting point?

Melting point: 453.65 K (180.50 °C, 356.90 °F)
‣ What is lithium’s boiling point?

Boiling point: 1603 K (1330 °C, 2426 °F)
‣ Why lithium has high melting and boiling point?

The ionization energy and binding energy of lithium is high, so the melting point and boiling point of lithium is high.
Lithium critical point: 3220 K, 67 MPa (extrapolated)
‣ How many electron shells does lithium have?

Electrons per shell: 2, 1
‣ What is the electron configuration of lithium?

Electron configuration: [He] 2s1
‣ What is lithium ionization energy?

Ionization energies:
1st: 520.2 kJ/mol
2nd: 7298.1 kJ/mol
3rd: 11815.0 kJ/mol
‣ Is lithium solid at room temperature?

Phase (at r.t): solid
‣ What is lithium’s density?

Density (near r.t): 0.534 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p): 0.512 g/cm3
Lithium magnetic ordering: paramagnetic
Lithium natural occurrence: primordial
‣ What is the oxidation state of lithium?

Oxidation state: +1
‣ What is the electronegativity of lithium?

Electronegativity: Pauling scale: 0.98
Lithium heat of fusion: 3.00 kJ/mol
Lithium heat of vaporization: 136 kJ/mol
Lithium molar heat capacity: 24.860 J/(mol K)
Lithium molar magnetic susceptibility: +14.2 × 10-6 cm3/mol (298 K)
Speed of sound in lithium: 6000 m/s (at 20 °C)
‣ What type of structure does lithium have?

Crystal structure: body-centered cubic (bcc)
Thermal expansion of lithium: 46 µm/(m.K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity of lithium: 84.8 W/(m.K)
Lithium electrical resistivity: 92.8 nΩ.m (at 20 °C)
‣ What is the hardness of lithium?

Mohs hardness: 0.6
Brinell hardness: 5 MPa
Young’s modulus of lithium: 4.9 GPa
Shear modulus of lithium: 4.2 GPa
Bulk modulus of lithium: 11 GPa
Lithium CAS number: 7439-93-2

‣ Lithium vapor pressure

Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)797885995114413371610

‣ How many isotopes does lithium have?

Main isotopes of lithium
IsotopeAbundanceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modeProduct
6Li7.59 %stable
7Li92.41 %stable

.
.
.

Related:

Also Read:

Leave a Comment