Sulfur Element (Periodic Table)

Sulfur

Sulfur (S), also spelled as sulphur (in British English) is a chemical element of the periodic table, located in the group 16 and the period 3, and is having the atomic number 16. It is a brittle, pale yellow reactive nonmetal, whose name comes from the Sanskrit word “sulvere” or Latin word “sulfurium”. It is a member of the chalcogen group and is the 16th most abundant element on earth.

group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
period
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
– p block

FAQs on Sulfur Element

Sulfur
‣ What does sulfur look like?

Appearance: lemon yellow sintered microcrystals
‣ When was sulfur discovered and by whom?

Discovery: Chinese (before 2000 BCE)
Recognized as an element by: Antoine Lavoisier (1777)
‣ Where is sulfur located on the periodic table?

Sulfur Periodic Table

Location: Sulfur is found in the third row of the periodic table below the oxygen element.
‣ What is sulfur’s atomic number?

Atomic number (Z): 16
‣ What is sulfur’s symbol?

Symbol: S
‣ What is sulfur’s atomic weight?

Standard atomic weight: [32.059, 32.076] conventional: 32.06
‣ What block is sulfur in the periodic table?

Block: p-block
‣ What group is sulfur in on the periodic table?

Group: 16 (chalcogens)
‣ Which period does sulfur belong to?

Period: 3
Sulfur covalent radius: 105±3 pm
Sulfur Van der Waals radius: 180 pm
‣ What is sulfur’s melting point?

Melting point: 388.36 K (115.21 °C, 239.38 °F)
‣ What is sulfur’s boiling point?

Boiling point: 717.8 K (444.6 °C, 832.3 °F)
Sulfur critical point: 1314 K, 20.7 MPa
‣ How many electron shells does sulfur have?

Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 6
‣ What is the ground state electron configuration of sulfur?

Electron configuration: [Ne] 3s2 3p4
‣ What is sulfur’s ionization energy?

Ionization energies:
1st: 999.6 kJ/mol
2nd: 2252 kJ/mol
3rd: 3357 kJ/mol
‣ What is sulfur’s phase at room temperature?

Phase (at r.t): solid
‣ What is sulfur’s density?

Density (near r.t):
alpha: 2.07 g/cm3
beta: 1.96 g/cm3
gamma: 1.92 g/cm3

when liquid (at m.p): 1.819 g/cm3
Sulfur magnetic ordering: diamagnetic
Sulfur natural occurrence: primordial
‣ What is the sulfur oxidation state?

Oxidation state: +4
‣ What is sulfur’s electronegativity?

Electronegativity: Pauling scale: 2.58
Sulfur heat of fusion: mono: 1.727 kJ/mol
Sulfur heat of vaporization: mono: 45 kJ/mol
Sulfur molar heat capacity: 22.75 J/(mol K)
Sulfur molar magnetic susceptibility: (α) -15.5 × 10-6 cm3/mol (298 K)
‣ What is the crystal structure of sulfur?

Crystal structure: orthorhombic
Thermal conductivity of sulfur: 0.205 W/(m.K) (amorphous)
Sulfur electrical resistivity: 2 × 1015 Ω.m (at 20 °C) (amorphous)
‣ What is sulfur’s hardness?

Mohs hardness: 2.0
Bulk modulus of sulfur: 7.7 GPa
Sulfur CAS number: 7704-34-9

‣ Sulfur vapor pressure

Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)375408449508591717

‣ How many isotopes does sulfur have?

Main isotopes of sulfur
IsotopeAbundanceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modeProduct
32S94.99 %stable
33S0.75 %stable
34S4.25 %stable
35Strace87.37 dβ35Cl
36S0.01 %stable

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