Antimony

Antimony
Antimony block

Antimony (Sb) is a chemical element of the periodic table, located in the group 15 and the period 5, and is having the atomic number 51. It is a hard, brittle, lustrous, silvery-grey metalloid, whose name comes from the Greek word “anti-monos”, which means not alone. It is a member of the pnictogen group.

On periodic table

group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
period
1 1
H
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Hydrogen
2
He
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Helium
2 3
Li
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Lithium
4
Be
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Beryllium
5
B
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Boron
6
C
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Carbon
7
N
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Nitrogen
8
O
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Oxygen
9
F
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Fluorine
10
Ne
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Neon
3 11
Na
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Sodium
12
Mg
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Magnesium
13
Al
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Aluminium
14
Si
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Silicon
15
P
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Phosphorus
16
S
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Sulfur
17
Cl
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Chlorine
18
Ar
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Argon
4 19
K
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Potassium
20
Ca
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Calcium
21
Sc
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Scandium
22
Ti
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Titanium
23
V
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Vanadium
24
Cr
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Chromium
25
Mn
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Manganese
26
Fe
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Iron
27
Co
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Cobalt
28
Ni
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Nickel
29
Cu
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Copper
30
Zn
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Zinc
31
Ga
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Gallium
32
Ge
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Germanium
33
As
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Arsenic
34
Se
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Selenium
35
Br
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Bromine
36
Kr
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Krypton
5 37
Rb
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Rubidium
38
Sr
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Strontium
39
Y
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Yttrium
40
Zr
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Zirconium
41
Nb
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Niobium
42
Mo
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Molybdenum
43
Tc
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Technetium
44
Ru
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Ruthenium
45
Rh
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Rhodium
46
Pd
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Palladium
47
Ag
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Silver
48
Cd
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Cadmium
49
In
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Indium
50
Sn
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Tin
51
Sb
Antimony
52
Te
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Tellurium
53
I
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Iodine
54
Xe
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Xenon
6 55
Cs
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Caesium
56
Ba
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Barium
72
Hf
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Hafnium
73
Ta
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Tantalum
74
W
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Tungsten
75
Re
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Rhenium
76
Os
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Osmium
77
Ir
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Iridium
78
Pt
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Platinum
79
Au
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Gold
80
Hg
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Mercury
81
Tl
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Thallium
82
Pb
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Lead
83
Bi
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Bismuth
84
Po
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Polonium
85
At
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Astatine
86
Rn
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Radon
7 87
Fr
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Francium
88
Ra
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Radium
104
Rf
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Rutherfordium
105
Db
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Dubnium
106
Sg
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Seaborgium
107
Bh
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Bohrium
108
Hs
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Hassium
109
Mt
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Meitnerium
110
Ds
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Darmstadtium
111
Rg
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Roentgenium
112
Cn
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Copernicium
113
Nh
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Nihonium
114
Fl
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Flerovium
115
Mc
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Moscovium
116
Lv
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Livermorium
117
Ts
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Tennessine
118
Og
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Oganesson
57
La
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Lanthanum
58
Ce
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Cerium
59
Pr
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Praseodymium
60
Nd
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Neodymium
61
Pm
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Promethium
62
Sm
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Samarium
63
Eu
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Europium
64
Gd
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Gadolinium
65
Tb
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Terbium
66
Dy
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Dysprosium
67
Ho
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Holmium
68
Er
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Erbium
69
Tm
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Thulium
70
Yb
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Ytterbium
71
Lu
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Lutetium
89
Ac
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Actinium
90
Th
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Thorium
91
Pa
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Protactinium
92
U
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Uranium
93
Np
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Neptunium
94
Pu
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Plutonium
95
Am
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Americium
96
Cm
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Curium
97
Bk
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Berkelium
98
Cf
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Californium
99
Es
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Einsteinium
100
Fm
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Fermium
101
Md
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Mendelevium
102
No
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Nobelium
103
Lr
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Lawrencium
– p block

Antimony is a p-block element, situated in the fifteenth column and the fifth row of the periodic table, denoted by the atomic number 51 and chemical symbol Sb.

Element information

Antimony Element
Antimony appearance | source: Wikipedia
Antimony Periodic Table
Antimony location on periodic table
Antimony is found in the fifth row of the periodic table below the arsenic element.
Origin of name Greek word “anti-monos” (which means not alone)
Symbol Sb
Atomic number (Z) 51
Atomic mass 121.76 u
Block p-block
Group 15 (nitrogen group)
Period 5
Classification Metalloid
Atomic radius 140 pm
Covalent radius 139±5 pm
Van der Waals radius 206 pm
Melting point 630.63 ℃, 1167.13 ℉, 903.78 K
Boiling point 1635 ℃, 2975 ℉, 1908 K
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Learn how to write: Antimony electron configuration
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 18, 5
Learn how to draw: Antimony Bohr model
Crystal structure Rhombohedral
Phase at r.t Solid
Density near r.t 6.697 g/cm3
Main isotopes Antimony-121, Antimony-123
Natural occurrence Primordial
Oxidation state -3, +3, +5
Electronegativity (Pauling scale) 2.05
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
51
71
51
Valence electrons 5
Learn how to find: Antimony valence electrons
CAS number 7440-36-0
Discovered by Arabic alchemists before AD 815

History

Antimony has a rich history dating back to ancient times. The name antimony is believed to have been derived from the Greek word “anti” meaning “not” and “monos” meaning “alone” because antimony was often found with other metals. The element has been known since ancient times and was used in various applications, such as makeup and medicinal treatments. The ancient Egyptians and Babylonians used antimony sulfide as a cosmetic, and it was also used in the Middle Ages to treat various ailments such as malaria and skin diseases. In the 17th century, antimony was used as a component in alloys for casting bells and cannons.

Occurrence

Antimony is a relatively abundant element in the Earth’s crust, with an estimated abundance of 0.2 to 0.5 parts per million. It is primarily found in the form of sulfide minerals, such as stibnite (Sb2S3), which is the most common mineral form of antimony. Antimony is also found in small quantities in other minerals, such as valentinite (Sb2O3) and senarmontite (Sb2O3).

Production

Antimony is typically produced from stibnite ore (Sb2S3), which is processed into antimony metal and antimony oxide (Sb2O3). The extraction of antimony from stibnite involves a series of pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes. In the pyrometallurgical process, stibnite ore is first heated in a furnace with air, which converts it to antimony oxide. The antimony oxide is then reduced with coke to produce antimony metal. In the hydrometallurgical process, stibnite ore is dissolved in hot sodium hydroxide, which produces a solution of sodium antimonate. The sodium antimonate is then acidified to produce antimony trioxide.

Antimony production is concentrated in a few countries, with China being the largest producer, accounting for around 78% of global antimony production. Other major producers include Russia, Tajikistan, and Bolivia.

Properties

Antimony is a silvery-white, brittle metalloid that has a metallic luster.

It has a relatively low melting point of 630 ℃, but it has a high boiling point of 1635 ℃.

Antimony is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.

It is highly reactive and can react with acids, oxygen, halogens, and other nonmetals.

Antimony has three allotropes: yellow, black, and metallic. The metallic form is the most stable at room temperature and pressure.

It has a high density of 6.697 grams per cubic centimeter.

Antimony can form compounds with a wide variety of elements, including sulfur, carbon, and halogens.

Applications

Antimony trioxide is widely used as a flame retardant in plastics, textiles, and building materials. It works by releasing water when exposed to fire, which helps to suppress flames.

Antimony is used in lead-acid batteries as an alloying agent to increase the durability and strength of the lead.

Antimony is used in the production of semiconductors, including diodes, infrared detectors, and Hall-effect devices.

Antimony is used as an alloying element with lead and tin to produce low-friction and wear-resistant bearings, as well as in bullets and shot for hunting and shooting.

Antimony is used in the production of glass as a fining agent, which helps to remove bubbles and improve clarity.

Antimony compounds are used in the production of a range of pigments, including orange, yellow, and red pigments.

Antimony has been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years to treat a range of conditions, including parasitic infections and skin diseases. However, it is no longer used in modern medicine due to its toxicity.

Antimony is also used in the production of ceramics, enamelware, and as a catalyst in the production of polyester resins.

Interesting facts

The name “antimony” comes from the Greek words “anti” and “monos”, meaning “not alone”. This refers to antimony’s tendency to form compounds with other elements rather than existing in its pure form.

Antimony has been used since ancient times, with evidence of antimony being used in cosmetics and medicines in ancient Egypt dating back to around 3100 BC.

Antimony is a toxic element, and historically, its compounds were used as poisons.

Antimony has a number of interesting physical properties. For example, it expands as it solidifies, making it difficult to cast into molds. It is also a poor conductor of heat and electricity.

Antimony is used in the production of lead-acid batteries, which are commonly used in automobiles. It is added to the lead plates in the battery to improve their hardness and durability.

Antimony is also used in the production of flame-retardant materials, such as those used in plastics and textiles. This is because antimony compounds release water vapor when heated, which can help to suppress flames.

Antimony has unique isotopes, one of which decays into tellurium, making it useful in nuclear reactors to regulate fission reactions.

Related

More elements

s block
p block
d block
f block
Barium Aluminium Bohrium Actinium
Beryllium Antimony Cadmium Americium
Caesium Argon Chromium Berkelium
Calcium Arsenic Cobalt Californium
Francium Astatine Copernicium Cerium
Helium Bismuth Copper Curium
Hydrogen Boron Darmstadtium Dysprosium
Lithium Bromine Dubnium Einsteinium
Magnesium Carbon Gold Erbium
Potassium Chlorine Hafnium Europium
Radium Flerovium Hassium Fermium
Rubidium Fluorine Iridium Gadolinium
Sodium Gallium Iron Holmium
Strontium Germanium Lawrencium Lanthanum
Indium Lutetium Mendelevium
Iodine Manganese Neodymium
Krypton Meitnerium Neptunium
Lead Mercury Nobelium
Livermorium Molybdenum Plutonium
Moscovium Nickel Praseodymium
Neon Niobium Promethium
Nihonium Osmium Protactinium
Nitrogen Palladium Samarium
Oganesson Platinum Terbium
Oxygen Rhenium Thorium
Phosphorus Rhodium Thulium
Polonium Roentgenium Uranium
Radon Ruthenium Ytterbium
Selenium Rutherfordium
Silicon Scandium
Sulfur Seaborgium
Tellurium Silver
Tennessine Tantalum
Thallium Technetium
Tin Titanium
Xenon Tungsten
Vanadium
Yttrium
Zinc
Zirconium

External links

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Learnool.com was founded by Deep Rana, who is a mechanical engineer by profession and a blogger by passion. He has a good conceptual knowledge on different educational topics and he provides the same on this website. He loves to learn something new everyday and believes that the best utilization of free time is developing a new skill.

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