Gadolinium Element (Periodic Table)

Gadolinium

Gadolinium (Gd) is a chemical element of the periodic table, located in the period 6, and has the atomic number 64. It is the eighth element in the lanthanide series. It is slightly malleable, ductile, silvery metal, which is named after the mineral gadolinite, in honour of Johan Gadolin, a Finnish chemist and geologist. It is counted as one of the rare earth elements.

group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
period
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
– f block

FAQs on Gadolinium Element

Gadolinium
‣ What does gadolinium look like?

Appearance: silvery white
‣ Who discovered gadolinium? When was gadolinium discovered?

Discovery: Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1880)
First isolation: Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1886)
‣ Where on the periodic table is gadolinium found?

Gadolinium Periodic Table

Location: Gadolinium is found in the sixth row of the periodic table, next to the europium element.
‣ What is the atomic number of gadolinium?

Atomic number (Z): 64
Gadolinium symbol: Gd
Atomic weight of gadolinium: 157.25
‣ Which block does gadolinium belong to?

Block: f-block
‣ What period is gadolinium on the periodic table?

Period: 6
‣ What is the atomic radius of gadolinium?

Atomic radius: empirical: 180 pm
Gadolinium covalent radius: 196±6 pm
Gadolinium melting point: 1585 K (1312 °C, 2394 °F)
‣ What is the boiling point of gadolinium?

Boiling point: 3273 K (3000 °C, 5432 °F)
‣ How many electrons does gadolinium have?

Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
‣ What is the electron configuration of gadolinium?

Electron configuration: [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Gadolinium ionization energies:
1st: 593.4 kJ/mol
2nd: 1170 kJ/mol
3rd: 1990 kJ/mol
‣ Is gadolinium solid, liquid or gas at room temperature?

Phase (at r.t): solid
‣ What is the density of gadolinium?

Density (near r.t): 7.90 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p): 7.4 g/cm3
Gadolinium magnetic ordering: ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition at 293.4 K
Gadolinium natural occurrence: primordial
Gadolinium oxidation state: +3
‣ What’s the electronegativity of gadolinium?

Electronegativity: Pauling scale: 1.20
Gadolinium poisson’s ratio: α form: 0.259
Gadolinium heat of fusion: 10.05 kJ/mol
Gadolinium heat of vaporization: 301.3 kJ/mol
Gadolinium molar heat capacity: 37.03 J/(mol K)
Gadolinium molar magnetic susceptibility: +755000.0 × 10-6 cm3/mol (300.6 K)
Speed of sound in gadolinium: 2680 m/s (at 20 °C)
‣ What is the crystal structure of gadolinium?

Crystal structure: hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Thermal expansion of gadolinium: α, poly: 9.4 µm/(m.K) (at 100 °C)
Thermal conductivity of gadolinium: 10.6 W/(m.K)
Gadolinium electrical resistivity: α, poly: 1.310 µΩ.m
‣ Gadolinium hardness

Vickers hardness: 510-950 MPa
Young’s modulus of gadolinium: α form: 54.8 GPa
Shear modulus of gadolinium: α form: 21.8 GPa
Bulk modulus of gadolinium: α form: 37.9 GPa
Gadolinium CAS number: 7440-54-2

‣ Gadolinium vapor pressure

Vapor pressure (calculated)
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)183620282267257329763535

‣ How many isotopes does gadolinium have?

Main isotopes of gadolinium
IsotopeAbundanceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modeProduct
148Gdsyn75 yα144Sm
150Gdsyn1.8 × 106 yα146Sm
152Gd0.20 %1.08 × 1014 yα148Sm
154Gd2.18 %stable
155Gd14.80 %stable
156Gd20.47 %stable
157Gd15.65 %stable
158Gd24.84 %stable
160Gd21.86 %stable

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