The orbital diagram of cobalt shows that the 1s subshell has 2 electrons, the 2s subshell has 2 electrons, the 2p subshell has 6 electrons, the 3s subshell has 2 electrons, the 3p subshell has 6 electrons, the 4s subshell has 2 electrons, and the 3d subshell has 7 electrons.
Here’s how you can draw the orbital diagram of cobalt step by step.
#1 Find electrons of cobalt
#2 Write electron configuration of cobalt
#3 Draw orbital diagram of cobalt
Let’s break down each step in detail.
The atomic number of cobalt represents the total number of electrons of cobalt. Since the atomic number of cobalt is 27, the total electrons of cobalt are 27.
Write electron configuration
The electron configuration of cobalt is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d7.
Now in the next step, start drawing the orbital diagram for cobalt.
Draw orbital diagram
Before drawing the orbital diagram, you should know the three general rules.
- Aufbau principle – electrons are first filled in lowest energy orbital and then in higher energy orbital
- Pauli exclusion principle – two electrons with the same spin can not occupy the same orbital
- Hund’s rule – each orbital should be first filled with one electron before being paired with a second electron
Also, you should know the number of orbitals in each subshell.
We can calculate the number of orbitals in each subshell using the formula: 2ℓ + 1
Where, ℓ = azimuthal quantum number of the subshell
For s subshell, ℓ = 0
For p subshell, ℓ = 1
For d subshell, ℓ = 2
For f subshell, ℓ = 3
So each s subshell has one orbital, each p subshell has three orbitals, each d subshell has five orbitals, and each f subshell has seven orbitals.
Now start to draw!
As mentioned above, the electron configuration of cobalt is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d7. Hence, draw the blank orbital diagram of cobalt up to 3d subshell as follows:
In the above orbital diagram, the box represents an orbital. Each orbital has a capacity of two electrons. And the arrows (↑↓) are drawn inside the box to represent electrons.
Now 1s2 indicates that the 1s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 1s box showing two electrons as follows:
2s2 indicates that the 2s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 2s box showing two electrons as follows:
2p6 indicates that the 2p subshell has 6 electrons. So draw six arrows in the 2p box showing six electrons as follows:
3s2 indicates that the 3s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 3s box showing two electrons as follows:
3p6 indicates that the 3p subshell has 6 electrons. So draw six arrows in the 3p box showing six electrons as follows:
4s2 indicates that the 4s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 4s box showing two electrons as follows:
3d7 indicates that the 3d subshell has 7 electrons. So draw seven arrows in the 3d box showing seven electrons as follows:
That’s it! This is the final orbital diagram of cobalt as we have used all 27 electrons.
Next: Nickel orbital diagram
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