Germanium orbital diagram

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Germanium orbital diagram
Germanium orbital diagram

The orbital diagram of germanium shows that the 1s subshell has 2 electrons, the 2s subshell has 2 electrons, the 2p subshell has 6 electrons, the 3s subshell has 2 electrons, the 3p subshell has 6 electrons, the 4s subshell has 2 electrons, the 3d subshell has 10 electrons, and the 4p subshell has 2 electrons.

Steps

Here’s how you can draw the orbital diagram of germanium step by step.

#1 Find electrons of germanium
#2 Write electron configuration of germanium
#3 Draw orbital diagram of germanium

Let’s break down each step in detail.

Find electrons

The atomic number of germanium represents the total number of electrons of germanium. Since the atomic number of germanium is 32, the total electrons of germanium are 32.

Write electron configuration

The electron configuration of germanium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p2.

Now in the next step, start drawing the orbital diagram for germanium.

Draw orbital diagram

Before drawing the orbital diagram, you should know the three general rules.

  • Aufbau principle – electrons are first filled in lowest energy orbital and then in higher energy orbital
  • Pauli exclusion principle – two electrons with the same spin can not occupy the same orbital
  • Hund’s rule – each orbital should be first filled with one electron before being paired with a second electron

Also, you should know the number of orbitals in each subshell.

We can calculate the number of orbitals in each subshell using the formula: 2ℓ + 1

Where, ℓ = azimuthal quantum number of the subshell

For s subshell, ℓ = 0
For p subshell, ℓ = 1
For d subshell, ℓ = 2
For f subshell, ℓ = 3

So each s subshell has one orbital, each p subshell has three orbitals, each d subshell has five orbitals, and each f subshell has seven orbitals.

Now start to draw!

As mentioned above, the electron configuration of germanium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p2. Hence, draw the blank orbital diagram of germanium up to 4p subshell as follows:

Blank orbital diagram of germanium

In the above orbital diagram, the box represents an orbital. Each orbital has a capacity of two electrons. And the arrows (↑↓) are drawn inside the box to represent electrons.

Now 1s2 indicates that the 1s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 1s box showing two electrons as follows:

Two arrows drawn in 1s box represent 1s2

2s2 indicates that the 2s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 2s box showing two electrons as follows:

Two arrows drawn in 2s box represent 2s2

2p6 indicates that the 2p subshell has 6 electrons. So draw six arrows in the 2p box showing six electrons as follows:

Six arrows drawn in 2p box represent 2p6

3s2 indicates that the 3s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 3s box showing two electrons as follows:

Two arrows drawn in 3s box represent 3s2

3p6 indicates that the 3p subshell has 6 electrons. So draw six arrows in the 3p box showing six electrons as follows:

Six arrows drawn in 3p box represent 3p6

4s2 indicates that the 4s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 4s box showing two electrons as follows:

Two arrows drawn in 4s box represent 4s2

3d10 indicates that the 3d subshell has 10 electrons. So draw ten arrows in the 3d box showing ten electrons as follows:

Ten arrows drawn in 3d box represent 3d10

4p2 indicates that the 4p subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 4p box showing two electrons as follows:

Two arrows drawn in 4p box represent 4p2

That’s it! This is the final orbital diagram of germanium as we have used all 32 electrons.

Next: Arsenic orbital diagram

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Learnool.com was founded by Deep Rana, who is a mechanical engineer by profession and a blogger by passion. He has a good conceptual knowledge on different educational topics and he provides the same on this website. He loves to learn something new everyday and believes that the best utilization of free time is developing a new skill.

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