The orbital diagram of aluminum shows that the 1s subshell has 2 electrons, the 2s subshell has 2 electrons, the 2p subshell has 6 electrons, the 3s subshell has 2 electrons, and the 3p subshell has 1 electron.
Here’s how you can draw the orbital diagram of aluminum step by step.
#1 Find electrons of aluminum
#2 Write electron configuration of aluminum
#3 Draw orbital diagram of aluminum
Let’s break down each step in detail.
The atomic number of aluminum represents the total number of electrons of aluminum. Since the atomic number of aluminum is 13, the total electrons of aluminum are 13.
Write electron configuration
The electron configuration of aluminum is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1.
Now in the next step, start drawing the orbital diagram for aluminum.
Draw orbital diagram
Before drawing the orbital diagram, you should know the three general rules.
- Aufbau principle – electrons are first filled in lowest energy orbital and then in higher energy orbital
- Pauli exclusion principle – two electrons with the same spin can not occupy the same orbital
- Hund’s rule – each orbital should be first filled with one electron before being paired with a second electron
Also, you should know the number of orbitals in each subshell.
We can calculate the number of orbitals in each subshell using the formula: 2ℓ + 1
Where, ℓ = azimuthal quantum number of the subshell
For s subshell, ℓ = 0
For p subshell, ℓ = 1
For d subshell, ℓ = 2
For f subshell, ℓ = 3
So each s subshell has one orbital, each p subshell has three orbitals, each d subshell has five orbitals, and each f subshell has seven orbitals.
Now start to draw!
As mentioned above, the electron configuration of aluminum is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1. Hence, draw the blank orbital diagram of aluminum up to 3p subshell as follows:
In the above orbital diagram, the box represents an orbital. Each orbital has a capacity of two electrons. And the arrows (↑↓) are drawn inside the box to represent electrons.
Now 1s2 indicates that the 1s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 1s box showing two electrons as follows:
2s2 indicates that the 2s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 2s box showing two electrons as follows:
2p6 indicates that the 2p subshell has 6 electrons. So draw six arrows in the 2p box showing six electrons as follows:
3s2 indicates that the 3s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 3s box showing two electrons as follows:
3p1 indicates that the 3p subshell has 1 electron. So draw one arrow in the 3p box showing one electron as follows:
That’s it! This is the final orbital diagram of aluminum as we have used all 13 electrons.
Next: Silicon orbital diagram
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