ClO3- Lewis structure

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ClO3- Lewis Structure
ClO3 Lewis structure

ClO3 (chlorate) has one chlorine atom and three oxygen atoms.

In the ClO3 Lewis structure, there are two double bonds and one single bond around the chlorine atom, with three oxygen atoms attached to it. The oxygen atom with double bonds has two lone pairs, the oxygen atom with a single bond has three lone pairs, and the chlorine atom has one lone pair.

Also, there is a negative (-1) charge on the oxygen atom with a single bond.

Steps

To properly draw the ClO3 Lewis structure, follow these steps:

#1 Draw a rough sketch of the structure
#2 Next, indicate lone pairs on the atoms
#3 Indicate formal charges on the atoms, if necessary
#4 Minimize formal charges by converting lone pairs of the atoms
#5 Repeat step 4 if necessary, until all charges are minimized

Let’s break down each step in more detail.

#1 Draw a rough sketch of the structure

  • First, determine the total number of valence electrons
Periodic table

In the periodic table, chlorine lies in group 17, and oxygen lies in group 16.

Hence, chlorine has seven valence electrons and oxygen has six valence electrons.

Since ClO3 has one chlorine atom and three oxygen atoms, so…

Valence electrons of one chlorine atom = 7 × 1 = 7
Valence electrons of three oxygen atoms = 6 × 3 = 18

Now the ClO3 has a negative (-1) charge, so we have to add one more electron.

So the total valence electrons = 7 + 18 + 1 = 26

  • Second, find the total electron pairs

We have a total of 26 valence electrons. And when we divide this value by two, we get the value of total electron pairs.

Total electron pairs = total valence electrons ÷ 2

So the total electron pairs = 26 ÷ 2 = 13

  • Third, determine the central atom

We have to place the least electronegative atom at the center.

Since chlorine is less electronegative than oxygen, assume that the central atom is chlorine.

Therefore, place chlorine in the center and oxygens on either side.

  • And finally, draw the rough sketch
ClO3- Lewis Structure (Step 1)
Rough sketch of ClO3 Lewis structure

#2 Next, indicate lone pairs on the atoms

Here, we have a total of 13 electron pairs. And three Cl — O bonds are already marked. So we have to only mark the remaining ten electron pairs as lone pairs on the sketch.

Also remember that chlorine is a period 3 element, so it can keep more than 8 electrons in its last shell. And oxygen is a period 2 element, so it can not keep more than 8 electrons in its last shell.

Always start to mark the lone pairs from outside atoms. Here, the outside atoms are oxygens.

So for each oxygen, there are three lone pairs, and for chlorine, there is one lone pair.

Mark the lone pairs on the sketch as follows:

ClO3- Lewis Structure (Step 2)
Lone pairs marked on ClO3 Lewis structure

#3 Indicate formal charges on the atoms, if necessary

Use the following formula to calculate the formal charges on atoms:

Formal charge = valence electrons – nonbonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons

For chlorine atom, formal charge = 7 – 2 – ½ (6) = +2

For each oxygen atom, formal charge = 6 – 6 – ½ (2) = -1

Here, both chlorine and oxygen atoms have charges, so mark them on the sketch as follows:

ClO3- Lewis Structure (Step 3)
Formal charges marked on ClO3 Lewis structure

The above structure is not a stable Lewis structure because both chlorine and oxygen atoms have charges. Therefore, reduce the charges (as below) by converting lone pairs to bonds.

#4 Minimize formal charges by converting lone pairs of the atoms

Convert a lone pair of the oxygen atom to make a new Cl — O bond with the chlorine atom as follows:

ClO3- Lewis Structure (Step 4)
Lone pair of left oxygen is converted, but still there are charges

#5 Repeat step 4 (minimize charges again)

Since there are charges on chlorine and oxygen atoms, again convert a lone pair of the oxygen atom to make a new Cl — O bond with the chlorine atom as follows:

ClO3- Lewis Structure (Step 5)
Lone pair of right oxygen is converted, and got the most stable Lewis structure of ClO3

In the above structure, you can see that the central atom (chlorine) forms an octet. And the outside atoms (oxygens) also form an octet. Hence, the octet rule is satisfied.

Now there is still a negative (-1) charge on the oxygen atom.

This is okay, because the structure with a negative charge on the most electronegative atom is the best Lewis structure. And in this case, the most electronegative element is oxygen.

Also, the above structure is more stable than the previous structures. Therefore, this structure is the most stable Lewis structure of ClO3.

And since the ClO3 has a negative (-1) charge, mention that charge on the Lewis structure by drawing brackets as follows:

ClO3- Lewis Structure (Final)
ClO3 Lewis structure showing a negative (-1) charge

Next: HCl Lewis structure

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Deep

Learnool.com was founded by Deep Rana, who is a mechanical engineer by profession and a blogger by passion. He has a good conceptual knowledge on different educational topics and he provides the same on this website. He loves to learn something new everyday and believes that the best utilization of free time is developing a new skill.

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