In the **francium**** ****orbital diagram**, the 1s subshell accommodates two electrons, the 2s subshell holds another pair, the 2p subshell has a maximum of six electrons, the 3s subshell contains two electrons, the 3p subshell has a maximum of six electrons, the 4s subshell accommodates two electrons, the 3d subshell holds ten electrons, the 4p subshell has a maximum of six electrons, the 5s subshell contains two electrons, the 4d subshell holds ten electrons, the 5p subshell has a maximum of six electrons, the 6s subshell accommodates two electrons, the 4f subshell holds fourteen electrons, the 5d subshell accommodates ten electrons, the 6p subshell has a maximum of six electrons, and the 7s subshell contains one electron, totaling eighty-seven electrons.

To illustrate the francium orbital diagram, identify the number of electrons from the periodic table. Begin by noting the electron configuration and adhere to the essential rules – the Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund’s rule. This systematic approach ensures an accurate representation of francium’s orbital arrangement.

## Steps

### Find electrons

The atomic number of francium represents the total number of electrons of francium. Since the atomic number of francium is 87, the total electrons of francium are 87.

### Write electron configuration

The electron configuration of francium is 1s^{2} 2s^{2} 2p^{6} 3s^{2} 3p^{6} 4s^{2} 3d^{10} 4p^{6} 5s^{2} 4d^{10} 5p^{6} 6s^{2} 4f^{14} 5d^{10} 6p^{6} 7s^{1}.

Now in the next step, start drawing the orbital diagram for francium.

### Draw orbital diagram

Before drawing the orbital diagram, you should know the three general rules.

- Aufbau principle – electrons are first filled in lowest energy orbital and then in higher energy orbital
- Pauli exclusion principle – two electrons with the same spin can not occupy the same orbital
- Hund’s rule – each orbital should be first filled with one electron before being paired with a second electron

Also, you should know the number of orbitals in each subshell.

We can calculate the number of orbitals in each subshell using the formula: 2ℓ + 1

Where, ℓ = azimuthal quantum number of the subshell

For s subshell, ℓ = 0

For p subshell, ℓ = 1

For d subshell, ℓ = 2

For f subshell, ℓ = 3

So each s subshell has one orbital, each p subshell has three orbitals, each d subshell has five orbitals, and each f subshell has seven orbitals.

Now start to draw!

As mentioned above, the electron configuration of francium is 1s^{2} 2s^{2} 2p^{6} 3s^{2} 3p^{6} 4s^{2} 3d^{10} 4p^{6} 5s^{2} 4d^{10} 5p^{6} 6s^{2} 4f^{14} 5d^{10} 6p^{6} 7s^{1}. Hence, draw the blank orbital diagram of francium up to 7s subshell as follows:

In the above orbital diagram, the box represents an orbital. Each orbital has a capacity of two electrons. And the arrows (↑↓) are drawn inside the box to represent electrons.

Now 1s^{2} indicates that the 1s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 1s box showing two electrons as follows:

2s^{2} indicates that the 2s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 2s box showing two electrons as follows:

2p^{6} indicates that the 2p subshell has 6 electrons. So draw six arrows in the 2p box showing six electrons as follows:

3s^{2} indicates that the 3s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 3s box showing two electrons as follows:

3p^{6} indicates that the 3p subshell has 6 electrons. So draw six arrows in the 3p box showing six electrons as follows:

4s^{2} indicates that the 4s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 4s box showing two electrons as follows:

3d^{10} indicates that the 3d subshell has 10 electrons. So draw ten arrows in the 3d box showing ten electrons as follows:

4p^{6} indicates that the 4p subshell has 6 electrons. So draw six arrows in the 4p box showing six electrons as follows:

5s^{2} indicates that the 5s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 5s box showing two electrons as follows:

4d^{10} indicates that the 4d subshell has 10 electrons. So draw ten arrows in the 4d box showing ten electrons as follows:

5p^{6} indicates that the 5p subshell has 6 electrons. So draw six arrows in the 5p box showing six electrons as follows:

6s^{2} indicates that the 6s subshell has 2 electrons. So draw two arrows in the 6s box showing two electrons as follows:

4f^{14} indicates that the 4f subshell has 14 electrons. So draw fourteen arrows in the 4f box showing fourteen electrons as follows:

5d^{10} indicates that the 5d subshell has 10 electrons. So draw ten arrows in the 5d box showing ten electrons as follows:

6p^{6} indicates that the 6p subshell has 6 electrons. So draw six arrows in the 6p box showing six electrons as follows:

7s^{1} indicates that the 7s subshell has 1 electron. So draw one arrow in the 7s box showing one electron as follows:

That’s it! This is the final orbital diagram of francium as we have used all 87 electrons.

**Next:** Boron orbital diagram

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Learnool.com was founded by Deep Rana, who is a mechanical engineer by profession and a blogger by passion. He has a good conceptual knowledge on different educational topics and he provides the same on this website. He loves to learn something new everyday and believes that the best utilization of free time is developing a new skill.