C4H10 Lewis structure

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C4H10 Lewis Structure
C4H10 Lewis structure | Image: Learnool

C4H10 (butane) has four carbon atoms and ten hydrogen atoms.

In the C4H10 Lewis structure, there are three single bonds between the four carbon atoms. The left carbon and right carbon are attached with three hydrogen atoms, and the two center carbons are attached with two hydrogen atoms. And none of the atoms has a lone pair.


To properly draw the C4H10 Lewis structure, follow these steps:

#1 Draw a rough sketch of the structure
#2 Next, indicate lone pairs on the atoms
#3 Indicate formal charges on the atoms, if necessary

Let’s break down each step in more detail.

#1 Draw a rough sketch of the structure

  • First, determine the total number of valence electrons
Periodic table | Image: Learnool

In the periodic table, carbon lies in group 14, and hydrogen lies in group 1.

Hence, carbon has four valence electrons and hydrogen has one valence electron.

Since C4H10 has four carbon atoms and ten hydrogen atoms, so…

Valence electrons of four carbon atoms = 4 × 4 = 16
Valence electrons of ten hydrogen atoms = 1 × 10 = 10

And the total valence electrons = 16 + 10 = 26

  • Second, find the total electron pairs

We have a total of 26 valence electrons. And when we divide this value by two, we get the value of total electron pairs.

Total electron pairs = total valence electrons ÷ 2

So the total electron pairs = 26 ÷ 2 = 13

  • Third, determine the central atom

Here hydrogen can not be the central atom. Because the central atom is bonded with at least two other atoms, and hydrogen has only one electron in its last shell, so it can not make more than one bond.

Now there are four atoms remaining and all four atoms are carbon, so we can assume any one as the central atom.

Let’s assume that the central atom is left carbon.

Therefore, place carbons in the center and hydrogens on either side.

  • And finally, draw the rough sketch
C4H10 Lewis Structure (Step 1)
Rough sketch drawn, and got the stable Lewis structure of C4H10 | Image: Learnool

#2 Next, indicate lone pairs on the atoms

Here, we have a total of 13 electron pairs. And thirteen bonds are already marked. So we do not have to mark any electron pair as a lone pair on the sketch.

In the above structure, you can see that the central atom (left carbon) forms an octet. The outside atoms (other carbons) also form an octet, and all hydrogens form a duet. Hence, the octet rule and duet rule are satisfied.

Therefore, this structure is the stable Lewis structure of C4H10.

Next: ICl Lewis structure

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