SbCl5 Lewis Structure

SbCl5 Lewis Structure

SbCl5 (antimony pentachloride) has one antimony atom and five chlorine atoms. In the lewis structure of SbCl5, there are five single bonds around the antimony atom, with five chlorine atoms attached to it, and on each chlorine atom, there are three lone pairs.

Steps

Here’s how you can draw the SbF5 lewis structure step by step.

Step #1: draw sketch
Step #2: mark lone pairs
Step #3: mark charges (if there are)

Let’s break down each step in detail.

#1 Draw Sketch

  • First, determine the total number of valence electrons

In the periodic table, antimony lies in group 15, and chlorine lies in group 17.

Hence, antimony has five valence electrons and chlorine has seven valence electrons.

Since SbCl5 has one antimony atom and five chlorine atoms, so…

Valence electrons of one antimony atom = 5 × 1 = 5
Valence electrons of five chlorine atoms = 7 × 5 = 35

And the total valence electrons = 5 + 35 = 40

  • Second, find the total electron pairs

We have a total of 40 valence electrons. And when we divide this value by two, we get the value of total electron pairs.

Total electron pairs = total valence electrons ÷ 2

So the total electron pairs = 40 ÷ 2 = 20

  • Third, determine the central atom

We have to place the least electronegative atom at the center.

Since antimony is less electronegative than chlorine, assume that the central atom is antimony.

Therefore, place antimony in the center and chlorines on either side.

  • And finally, draw the rough sketch
SbCl5 Lewis Structure (Step 1)

#2 Mark Lone Pairs

Here, we have a total of 20 electron pairs. And five Sb — Cl bonds are already marked. So we have to only mark the remaining fifteen electron pairs as lone pairs on the sketch.

Also remember that antimony is a period 5 element, so it can keep more than 8 electrons in its last shell. And chlorine is a period 3 element, so it can keep more than 8 electrons in its last shell.

Always start to mark the lone pairs from outside atoms. Here, the outside atoms are chlorines.

So for each chlorine, there are three lone pairs, and for antimony, there is zero lone pair because all fifteen electron pairs are over.

Mark the lone pairs on the sketch as follows:

SbCl5 Lewis Structure (Step 2)

#3 Mark Charges

Use the following formula to calculate the formal charges on atoms:

Formal charge = valence electrons – nonbonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons

For antimony atom, formal charge = 5 – 0 – ½ (10) = 0

For each chlorine atom, formal charge = 7 – 6 – ½ (2) = 0

Here, both antimony and chlorine atoms do not have charges, so no need to mark the charges.

And in the above structure, you can see that the central atom (antimony) forms an octet. Hence, the octet rule is satisfied.

Therefore, this structure is the stable lewis structure of SbCl5.

Next: SbCl52- Lewis Structure

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