Acetone Lewis Structure

Acetone Lewis Structure

(CH3)2CO or C3H6O (acetone) has three carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. In the lewis structure of acetone, there are two single bonds between the three carbon atoms. The left carbon and right carbon are attached with three hydrogen atoms, and the center carbon makes a double bond with one oxygen atom. And on the oxygen atom, there are two lone pairs.

Steps

Here’s how you can draw the acetone lewis structure step by step.

Step #1: draw sketch
Step #2: mark lone pairs
Step #3: mark charges
Step #4: minimize charges
Step #5: minimize charges again (if there are)

Let’s break down each step in detail.

#1 Draw Sketch

  • First, determine the total number of valence electrons

In the periodic table, carbon lies in group 14, hydrogen lies in group 1, and oxygen lies in group 16.

Hence, carbon has four valence electrons, hydrogen has one valence electron, and oxygen has six valence electrons.

Since ethanol has three carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom, so…

Valence electrons of three carbon atoms = 4 × 3 = 12
Valence electrons of six hydrogen atoms = 1 × 6 = 6
Valence electrons of one oxygen atom = 6 × 1 = 6

And the total valence electrons = 12 + 6 + 6 = 24

  • Second, find the total electron pairs

We have a total of 24 valence electrons. And when we divide this value by two, we get the value of total electron pairs.

Total electron pairs = total valence electrons ÷ 2

So the total electron pairs = 24 ÷ 2 = 12

  • Third, determine the central atom

Here hydrogen can not be the central atom. Because the central atom is bonded with at least two other atoms, and hydrogen has only one electron in its last shell, so it can not make more than one bond.

Now we have to choose the central atom from carbon and oxygen. Place the least electronegative atom at the center.

Since carbon is less electronegative than oxygen, assume that the central atom is carbon.

Here, there are three carbon atoms, so we can assume any one as the central atom.

Let’s assume that the central atom is center carbon.

Therefore, place carbons in the center and hydrogen and oxygen on either side.

  • And finally, draw the rough sketch
Acetone Lewis Structure (Step 1)

#2 Mark Lone Pairs

Here, we have a total of 12 electron pairs. And nine bonds are already marked. So we have to only mark the remaining three electron pairs as lone pairs on the sketch.

Also remember that both (carbon and oxygen) are the period 2 elements, so they can not keep more than 8 electrons in their last shell. And hydrogen is a period 1 element, so it can not keep more than 2 electrons in its last shell.

Always start to mark the lone pairs from outside atoms. Here, the outside atoms are hydrogens and oxygen. But no need to mark on hydrogen, because each hydrogen has already two electrons.

So for oxygen, there are three lone pairs, and for carbon, there is zero lone pair because all three electron pairs are over.

Mark the lone pairs on the sketch as follows:

Acetone Lewis Structure (Step 2)

#3 Mark Charges

Use the following formula to calculate the formal charges on atoms:

Formal charge = valence electrons – nonbonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons

For left carbon and right carbon atom, formal charge = 4 – 0 – ½ (8) = 0

For center carbon atom, formal charge = 4 – 0 – ½ (6) = +1

For each hydrogen atom, formal charge = 1 – 0 – ½ (2) = 0

For oxygen atom, formal charge = 6 – 6 – ½ (2) = -1

Here, both carbon and oxygen atoms have charges, so mark them on the sketch as follows:

Acetone Lewis Structure (Step 3)

The above structure is not a stable lewis structure because both carbon and oxygen atoms have charges. Therefore, reduce the charges (as below) by converting lone pairs to bonds.

#4 Minimize Charges

Convert a lone pair of the oxygen atom to make a new C — O bond with the carbon atom as follows:

Acetone Lewis Structure (Step 4)

In the above structure, you can see that the central atom (center carbon) forms an octet. Hence, the octet rule is satisfied.

Also, the above structure is more stable than the previous structures. Therefore, this structure is the stable lewis structure of acetone.

Next: HCO3 Lewis Structure

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