# C6H12O6 Lewis structure

C6H12O6 (glucose) has six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms.

In C6H12O6 Lewis structure, there are five single bonds between the six carbon atoms. The first carbon is attached with one hydrogen and one oxygen. The second carbon, third carbon, fourth carbon, and fifth carbon are all attached with one hydrogen and one oxygen, and each oxygen has one hydrogen attached with it. And the sixth carbon is attached with two hydrogens and one oxygen, and this oxygen has one other hydrogen attached with it. Also, there are two lone pairs on each oxygen atom.

Contents

## Steps

Here’s how you can easily draw the C6H12O6 Lewis structure step by step:

#1 Draw a rough skeleton structure
#2 Mention lone pairs on the atoms
#3 If needed, mention formal charges on the atoms
#4 Minimize formal charges by converting lone pairs of the atoms, and try to get a stable Lewis structure
#5 Repeat step 4 again if needed, until all charges are minimized

Now, let’s take a closer look at each step mentioned above.

### #1 Draw a rough skeleton structure

• First, determine the total number of valence electrons

In the periodic table, carbon lies in group 14, hydrogen lies in group 1, and oxygen lies in group 16.

Hence, carbon has four valence electrons, hydrogen has one valence electron, and oxygen has six valence electrons.

Since C6H12O6 has six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms, so…

Valence electrons of six carbon atoms = 4 × 6 = 24
Valence electrons of twelve hydrogen atoms = 1 × 12 = 12
Valence electrons of six oxygen atoms = 6 × 6 = 36

And the total valence electrons = 24 + 12 + 36 = 72

• Second, find the total electron pairs

We have a total of 72 valence electrons. And when we divide this value by two, we get the value of total electron pairs.

Total electron pairs = total valence electrons ÷ 2

So the total electron pairs = 72 ÷ 2 = 36

• Third, determine the central atom

Here hydrogen can not be the central atom. Because the central atom is bonded with at least two other atoms, and hydrogen has only one electron in its last shell, so it can not make more than one bond.

Now we have to choose the central atom from carbon and oxygen. Place the least electronegative atom at the center.

Since carbon is less electronegative than oxygen, assume that the central atom is carbon.

Here, there are six carbon atoms, so we can assume any one as the central atom.

Let’s assume that the central atom is first carbon.

Therefore, place carbons in the center and hydrogen and oxygen on either side.

• And finally, draw the rough sketch

### #2 Mention lone pairs on the atoms

Here, we have a total of 36 electron pairs. And twenty-three bonds are already marked. So we have to only mark the remaining thirteen electron pairs as lone pairs on the sketch.

Also remember that both (carbon and oxygen) are the period 2 elements, so they can not keep more than 8 electrons in their last shell. And hydrogen is a period 1 element, so it can not keep more than 2 electrons in its last shell.

Always start to mark the lone pairs from outside atoms. Here, the outside atoms are hydrogens, oxygens, second carbon, third carbon, fourth carbon, fifth carbon, and sixth carbon. But no need to mark on hydrogen, because each hydrogen has already two electrons.

So for first oxygen, there are three lone pairs, for other five oxygens, there are two lone pairs. And for carbons, there is zero lone pair because all thirteen electron pairs are over.

Mark the lone pairs on the sketch as follows:

### #3 If needed, mention formal charges on the atoms

Use the following formula to calculate the formal charges on atoms:

Formal charge = valence electrons – nonbonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons

For first carbon atom, formal charge = 4 – 0 – ½ (6) = +1

For other carbon atoms, formal charge = 4 – 0 – ½ (8) = 0

For each hydrogen atom, formal charge = 1 – 0 – ½ (2) = 0

For first oxygen atom, formal charge = 6 – 6 – ½ (2) = -1

For each oxygen atoms, formal charge = 6 – 4 – ½ (4) = 0

Here, both carbon and oxygen atoms have charges, so mark them on the sketch as follows:

The above structure is not a stable Lewis structure because both carbon and oxygen atoms have charges. Therefore, reduce the charges (as below) by converting lone pairs to bonds.

### #4 Minimize formal charges by converting lone pairs of the atoms

Convert a lone pair of the first oxygen atom to make a new C — O bond with the first carbon atom as follows:

The lone pair of first oxygen atom is converted, and now the Lewis structure of C6H12O6 will look like this:

In the above structure, you can see that the central atom (first carbon) forms an octet. The outside atoms (other carbons and oxygens) also form an octet, and all hydrogens form a duet. Hence, the octet rule and duet rule are satisfied.

Also, the above structure is more stable than the previous structures. Therefore, this structure is the stable Lewis structure of C6H12O6.

Next: ICN Lewis structure