# HBrO3 lewis structure

HBrO3 (bromic acid) has one hydrogen atom, one bromine atom, and three oxygen atoms.

In HBrO3 lewis structure, there are two double bonds and one single bond around the bromine atom, with three oxygen atoms attached to it. And the oxygen atom with a single bond is attached with one hydrogen atom. Each oxygen atom has two lone pairs, and on the bromine atom, there is one lone pair.

Contents

## Steps

Here’s how you can easily draw the HBrO3 lewis structure step by step:

#1 Draw a rough skeleton structure
#2 Mention lone pairs on the atoms
#3 If needed, mention formal charges on the atoms
#4 Minimize formal charges by converting lone pairs of the atoms, and try to get a stable lewis structure
#5 Repeat step 4 again if needed, until all charges are minimized

Now, let’s take a closer look at each step mentioned above.

### #1 Draw a rough skeleton structure

• First, determine the total number of valence electrons

In the periodic table, hydrogen lies in group 1, bromine lies in group 17, and oxygen lies in group 16.

Hence, hydrogen has one valence electron, bromine has seven valence electrons, and oxygen has six valence electrons.

Since HBrO3 has one hydrogen atom, one bromine atom, and three oxygen atoms, so…

Valence electrons of one hydrogen atom = 1 × 1 = 1
Valence electrons of one bromine atom = 7 × 1 = 7
Valence electrons of three oxygen atoms = 6 × 3 = 18

And the total valence electrons = 1 + 7 + 18 = 26

Learn how to find: Hydrogen valence electrons, Bromine valence electrons, and Oxygen valence electrons

• Second, find the total electron pairs

We have a total of 26 valence electrons. And when we divide this value by two, we get the value of total electron pairs.

Total electron pairs = total valence electrons ÷ 2

So the total electron pairs = 26 ÷ 2 = 13

• Third, determine the central atom

Here hydrogen can not be the central atom. Because the central atom is bonded with at least two other atoms, and hydrogen has only one electron in its last shell, so it can not make more than one bond.

Now we have to choose the central atom from bromine and oxygen. Place the least electronegative atom at the center.

Since bromine is less electronegative than oxygen, assume that the central atom is bromine.

Therefore, place bromine in the center and hydrogen and oxygen on either side.

• And finally, draw the rough sketch

### #2 Mention lone pairs on the atoms

Here, we have a total of 13 electron pairs. And four bonds are already marked. So we have to only mark the remaining nine electron pairs as lone pairs on the sketch.

Also remember that hydrogen is a period 1 element, so it can not keep more than 2 electrons in its last shell. Bromine is a period 4 element, so it can keep more than 8 electrons in its last shell. And oxygen is a period 2 element, so it can not keep more than 8 electrons in its last shell.

Always start to mark the lone pairs from outside atoms. Here, the outside atoms are oxygens and hydrogen. But no need to mark on hydrogen, because hydrogen already has two electrons.

So for top oxygen and left oxygen, there are three lone pairs, for right oxygen, there are two lone pairs, and for bromine, there is one lone pair.

Mark the lone pairs on the sketch as follows:

### #3 If needed, mention formal charges on the atoms

Use the following formula to calculate the formal charges on atoms:

Formal charge = valence electrons – nonbonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons

For hydrogen atom, formal charge = 1 – 0 – ½ (2) = 0

For bromine atom, formal charge = 7 – 2 – ½ (6) = +2

For top oxygen and left oxygen atom, formal charge = 6 – 6 – ½ (2) = -1

For right oxygen atom, formal charge = 6 – 4 – ½ (4) = 0

Here, both bromine and oxygen atoms have charges, so mark them on the sketch as follows:

The above structure is not a stable lewis structure because both bromine and oxygen atoms have charges. Therefore, reduce the charges (as below) by converting lone pairs to bonds.

### #4 Minimize formal charges by converting lone pairs of the atoms

Convert a lone pair of the left oxygen atom to make a new Br — O bond with the bromine atom as follows:

### #5 Since there are charges on atoms, repeat step 4 again

Since there are charges on bromine and oxygen atoms, again convert a lone pair of the top oxygen atom to make a new Br — O bond with the bromine atom as follows: