# HClO4 Lewis Structure

HClO4 (perchloric acid) has one hydrogen atom, one chlorine atom, and four oxygen atoms. In the lewis structure of HClO4, there are three double bonds and one single bond around the chlorine atom, with four oxygen atoms attached to it. The oxygen atom with double bonds has two lone pairs, and the right oxygen atom (with which the hydrogen atom is attached) also has two lone pairs.

## Steps

Here’s how you can draw the HClO4 lewis structure step by step.

Step #1: draw sketch
Step #2: mark lone pairs
Step #3: mark charges
Step #4: minimize charges
Step #5: minimize charges again (if there are)

Let’s break down each step in detail.

### #1 Draw Sketch

• First, determine the total number of valence electrons

In the periodic table, hydrogen lies in group 1, chlorine lies in group 17, and oxygen lies in group 16.

Hence, hydrogen has one valence electron, chlorine has seven valence electrons, and oxygen has six valence electrons.

Since HClO4 has one hydrogen atom, one chlorine atom, and four oxygen atoms, so…

Valence electrons of one hydrogen atom = 1 × 1 = 1
Valence electrons of one chlorine atom = 7 × 1 = 7
Valence electrons of four oxygen atoms = 6 × 4 = 24

And the total valence electrons = 1 + 7 + 24 = 32

• Second, find the total electron pairs

We have a total of 32 valence electrons. And when we divide this value by two, we get the value of total electron pairs.

Total electron pairs = total valence electrons ÷ 2

So the total electron pairs = 32 ÷ 2 = 16

• Third, determine the central atom

Here hydrogen can not be the central atom. Because the central atom is bonded with at least two other atoms, and hydrogen has only one electron in its last shell, so it can not make more than one bond.

Now we have to choose the central atom from chlorine and oxygen. Place the least electronegative atom at the center.

Since chlorine is less electronegative than oxygen, assume that the central atom is chlorine.

Therefore, place chlorine in the center and hydrogen and oxygen on either side.

• And finally, draw the rough sketch

### #2 Mark Lone Pairs

Here, we have a total of 16 electron pairs. And five bonds are already marked. So we have to only mark the remaining eleven electron pairs as lone pairs on the sketch.

Also remember that hydrogen is a period 1 element, so it can not keep more than 2 electrons in its last shell. Chlorine is a period 3 element, so it can keep more than 8 electrons in its last shell. And oxygen is a period 2 element, so it can not keep more than 8 electrons in its last shell.

Always start to mark the lone pairs from outside atoms. Here, the outside atoms are oxygens and hydrogen. But no need to mark on hydrogen, because hydrogen already has two electrons.

So for top oxygen, bottom oxygen, and left oxygen, there are three lone pairs. For right oxygen, there are two lone pairs, and for chlorine, there is zero lone pair because all eleven electron pairs are over.

Mark the lone pairs on the sketch as follows:

### #3 Mark Charges

Use the following formula to calculate the formal charges on atoms:

Formal charge = valence electrons – nonbonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons

For hydrogen atom, formal charge = 1 – 0 – ½ (2) = 0

For chlorine atom, formal charge = 7 – 0 – ½ (8) = +3

For top oxygen, bottom oxygen, and left oxygen atom, formal charge = 6 – 6 – ½ (2) = -1

For right oxygen atom, formal charge = 6 – 4 – ½ (4) = 0

Here, both chlorine and oxygen atoms have charges, so mark them on the sketch as follows:

The above structure is not a stable lewis structure because both chlorine and oxygen atoms have charges. Therefore, reduce the charges (as below) by converting lone pairs to bonds.

### #4 Minimize Charges

Convert a lone pair of the left oxygen atom to make a new Cl — O bond with the chlorine atom as follows:

### #5 Minimize Charges Again

Since there are charges on chlorine and oxygen atoms, again convert a lone pair of the top oxygen atom to make a new Cl — O bond with the chlorine atom as follows:

### #6 Minimize Charges Again

There are still charges on chlorine and oxygen atoms, so again convert a lone pair of the bottom oxygen atom to make a new Cl — O bond with the chlorine atom as follows:

In the above structure, you can see that the central atom (chlorine) forms an octet. Hence, the octet rule is satisfied.

Also, the above structure is more stable than the previous structures. Therefore, this structure is the stable lewis structure of HClO4.