# HCONH2 Lewis structure

HCONH2 (formamide) has three hydrogen atoms, one carbon atom, one oxygen atom, and one nitrogen atom.

In HCONH2 Lewis structure, there is a single bond between the carbon and nitrogen atom. The carbon is attached with one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom, and the nitrogen is attached with two other hydrogen atoms. There are two lone pairs on the oxygen atom, and one lone pair on the nitrogen atom.

Contents

## Steps

Here’s how you can easily draw the HCONH2 Lewis structure step by step:

#1 Draw a rough skeleton structure
#2 Mention lone pairs on the atoms
#3 If needed, mention formal charges on the atoms
#4 Minimize formal charges by converting lone pairs of the atoms, and try to get a stable Lewis structure
#5 Repeat step 4 again if needed, until all charges are minimized

Now, let’s take a closer look at each step mentioned above.

### #1 Draw a rough skeleton structure

• First, determine the total number of valence electrons

In the periodic table, hydrogen lies in group 1, carbon lies in group 14, oxygen lies in group 16, and nitrogen lies in group 15.

Hence, hydrogen has one valence electron, carbon has four valence electrons, oxygen has six valence electrons, and nitrogen has five valence electrons.

Since HCONH2 has three hydrogen atoms, one carbon atom, one oxygen atom, and one nitrogen atom, so…

Valence electrons of three hydrogen atoms = 1 × 3 = 3
Valence electrons of one carbon atom = 4 × 1 = 4
Valence electrons of one oxygen atom = 6 × 1 = 6
Valence electrons of one nitrogen atom = 5 × 1 = 5

And the total valence electrons = 3 + 4 + 6 + 5 = 18

• Second, find the total electron pairs

We have a total of 18 valence electrons. And when we divide this value by two, we get the value of total electron pairs.

Total electron pairs = total valence electrons ÷ 2

So the total electron pairs = 18 ÷ 2 = 9

• Third, determine the central atom

Here hydrogen can not be the central atom. Because the central atom is bonded with at least two other atoms, and hydrogen has only one electron in its last shell, so it can not make more than one bond.

Now we have to choose the central atom from carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Place the least electronegative atom at the center.

Since carbon is less electronegative than oxygen and nitrogen, assume that the central atom is carbon.

Therefore, place carbon in the center and hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen on either side.

• And finally, draw the rough sketch

### #2 Mention lone pairs on the atoms

Here, we have a total of 9 electron pairs. And five bonds are already marked. So we have to only mark the remaining four electron pairs as lone pairs on the sketch.

Also remember that hydrogen is a period 1 element, so it can not keep more than 2 electrons in its last shell. And all three (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) are the period 2 elements, so they can not keep more than 8 electrons in their last shell.

Always start to mark the lone pairs from outside atoms. Here, the outside atoms are hydrogens, oxygen, and nitrogen. But no need to mark on hydrogen, because each hydrogen has already two electrons.

So for oxygen, there are three lone pairs, and for nitrogen, there is one lone pair. And for carbon, there is zero lone pair because all four electron pairs are over.

Mark the lone pairs on the sketch as follows:

### #3 If needed, mention formal charges on the atoms

Use the following formula to calculate the formal charges on atoms:

Formal charge = valence electrons – nonbonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons

For each hydrogen atom, formal charge = 1 – 0 – ½ (2) = 0

For carbon atom, formal charge = 4 – 0 – ½ (6) = +1

For oxygen atom, formal charge = 6 – 6 – ½ (2) = -1

For nitrogen atom, formal charge = 5 – 2 – ½ (6) = 0

Here, both carbon and oxygen atoms have charges, so mark them on the sketch as follows:

The above structure is not a stable Lewis structure because both carbon and oxygen atoms have charges. Therefore, reduce the charges (as below) by converting lone pairs to bonds.

### #4 Minimize formal charges by converting lone pairs of the atoms

Convert a lone pair of the oxygen atom to make a new C — O bond with the carbon atom as follows:

In the above structure, you can see that the central atom (carbon) forms an octet. The outside atoms (oxygen and nitrogen) also form an octet, and all hydrogens form a duet. Hence, the octet rule and duet rule are satisfied.

Also, the above structure is more stable than the previous structures. Therefore, this structure is the stable Lewis structure of HCONH2.