# CHCl3 Lewis structure

CHCl3 (chloroform) has one carbon atom, one hydrogen atom, and three chlorine atoms.

In the CHCl3 Lewis structure, there are four single bonds around the carbon atom, with one hydrogen atom and three chlorine atoms attached to it, and on each chlorine atom, there are three lone pairs.

Contents

## Steps

To properly draw the CHCl3 Lewis structure, follow these steps:

#1 Draw a rough sketch of the structure
#2 Next, indicate lone pairs on the atoms
#3 Indicate formal charges on the atoms, if necessary

Let’s break down each step in more detail.

### #1 Draw a rough sketch of the structure

• First, determine the total number of valence electrons

In the periodic table, carbon lies in group 14, hydrogen lies in group 1, and chlorine lies in group 17.

Hence, carbon has four valence electrons, hydrogen has one valence electron, and chlorine has seven valence electrons.

Since CHCl3 has one carbon atom, one hydrogen atom, and three chlorine atoms, so…

Valence electrons of one carbon atom = 4 × 1 = 4
Valence electrons of one hydrogen atom = 1 × 1 = 1
Valence electrons of three chlorine atoms = 7 × 3 = 21

And the total valence electrons = 4 + 1 + 21 = 26

• Second, find the total electron pairs

We have a total of 12 valence electrons. And when we divide this value by two, we get the value of total electron pairs.

Total electron pairs = total valence electrons ÷ 2

So the total electron pairs = 26 ÷ 2 = 13

• Third, determine the central atom

Here hydrogen can not be the central atom. Because the central atom is bonded with at least two other atoms, and hydrogen has only one electron in its last shell, so it can not make more than one bond.

Now we have to choose the central atom from carbon and chlorine. Place the least electronegative atom at the center.

Since carbon is less electronegative than chlorine, assume that the central atom is carbon.

Therefore, place carbon in the center and hydrogen and chlorine on either side.

• And finally, draw the rough sketch

### #2 Next, indicate lone pairs on the atoms

Here, we have a total of 13 electron pairs. And four bonds are already marked. So we have to only mark the remaining nine electron pairs as lone pairs on the sketch.

Also remember that carbon is a period 2 element, so it can not keep more than 8 electrons in its last shell. Hydrogen is a period 1 element, so it can not keep more than 2 electrons in its last shell. And chlorine is a period 3 element, so it can keep more than 8 electrons in its last shell.

Always start to mark the lone pairs from outside atoms. Here, the outside atoms are hydrogen and chlorines. But no need to mark on hydrogen, because hydrogen already has two electrons.

So for each chlorine, there are three lone pairs, and for carbon, there is zero lone pair because all nine electron pairs are over.

Mark the lone pairs on the sketch as follows:

### #3 Indicate formal charges on the atoms, if necessary

Use the following formula to calculate the formal charges on atoms:

Formal charge = valence electrons – nonbonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons

For carbon atom, formal charge = 4 – 0 – ½ (8) = 0

For hydrogen atom, formal charge = 1 – 0 – ½ (2) = 0

For each chlorine atom, formal charge = 7 – 6 – ½ (2) = 0

Here, the atoms do not have charges, so no need to mark the charges.

In the above structure, you can see that the central atom (carbon) forms an octet. The outside atoms (chlorines) also form an octet, and hydrogen forms a duet. Hence, the octet rule and duet rule are satisfied.

Therefore, this structure is the stable Lewis structure of CHCl3.

Next: BrF3 Lewis structure