HSO4– (hydrogen sulfate) has one hydrogen atom, one sulfur atom, and four oxygen atoms. In the lewis structure of HSO4–, there are two single bonds and two double bonds around the sulfur atom, with four oxygen atoms attached to it. The oxygen atom with a double bond has two lone pairs, the left oxygen atom (with which the hydrogen atom is attached) also has two lone pairs, and the bottom oxygen atom with a single bond has three lone pairs.
Also, there is a negative (-1) charge on the bottom oxygen atom.
Here’s how you can draw the HSO4– lewis structure step by step.
Step #1: draw sketch
Step #2: mark lone pairs
Step #3: mark charges
Step #4: minimize charges
Step #5: minimize charges again (if there are)
Let’s break down each step in detail.
#1 Draw Sketch
- First, determine the total number of valence electrons
Hence, hydrogen has one valence electron, and both sulfur and oxygen have six valence electrons.
Since HSO4– has one hydrogen atom, one sulfur atom, and four oxygen atoms, so…
Valence electrons of one hydrogen atom = 1 × 1 = 1
Valence electrons of one sulfur atom = 6 × 1 = 6
Valence electrons of four oxygen atoms = 6 × 4 = 24
Now the HSO4– has a negative (-1) charge, so we have to add one more electron.
So the total valence electrons = 1 + 6 + 24 +1 = 32
- Second, find the total electron pairs
We have a total of 32 valence electrons. And when we divide this value by two, we get the value of total electron pairs.
Total electron pairs = total valence electrons ÷ 2
So the total electron pairs = 32 ÷ 2 = 16
- Third, determine the central atom
Here hydrogen can not be the central atom. Because the central atom is bonded with at least two other atoms, and hydrogen has only one electron in its last shell, so it can not make more than one bond.
Now we have to choose the central atom from sulfur and oxygen. Place the least electronegative atom at the center.
Since sulfur is less electronegative than oxygen, assume that the central atom is sulfur.
Therefore, place sulfur in the center and hydrogen and oxygen on either side.
- And finally, draw the rough sketch
#2 Mark Lone Pairs
Here, we have a total of 16 electron pairs. And five bonds are already marked. So we have to only mark the remaining eleven electron pairs as lone pairs on the sketch.
Also remember that hydrogen is a period 1 element, so it can not keep more than 2 electrons in its last shell. Sulfur is a period 3 element, so it can keep more than 8 electrons in its last shell. And oxygen is a period 2 element, so it can not keep more than 8 electrons in its last shell.
Always start to mark the lone pairs from outside atoms. Here, the outside atoms are hydrogen and oxygens. But no need to mark on hydrogen, because hydrogen already has two electrons.
So for top oxygen, bottom oxygen, and right oxygen, there are three lone pairs. For left oxygen, there are two lone pairs, and for sulfur, there is zero lone pair because all eleven electron pairs are over.
Mark the lone pairs on the sketch as follows:
#3 Mark Charges
Use the following formula to calculate the formal charges on atoms:
Formal charge = valence electrons – nonbonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons
For hydrogen atom, formal charge = 1 – 0 – ½ (2) = 0
For sulfur atom, formal charge = 6 – 0 – ½ (8) = +2
For top oxygen, bottom oxygen, and right oxygen atom, formal charge = 6 – 6 – ½ (2) = -1
For left oxygen atom, formal charge = 6 – 4 – ½ (4) = 0
Here, both sulfur and oxygen atoms have charges, so mark them on the sketch as follows:
The above structure is not a stable lewis structure because both sulfur and oxygen atoms have charges. Therefore, reduce the charges (as below) by converting lone pairs to bonds.
#4 Minimize Charges
Convert a lone pair of the right oxygen atom to make a new S — O bond with the sulfur atom as follows:
#5 Minimize Charges Again
Since there are charges on sulfur and oxygen atoms, again convert a lone pair of the top oxygen atom to make a new S — O bond with the sulfur atom as follows:
In the above structure, you can see that the central atom (sulfur) forms an octet. Hence, the octet rule is satisfied.
Now there is a negative (-1) charge on the bottom oxygen atom.
This is okay, because the structure with a negative charge on the most electronegative atom is the best lewis structure. And in this case, the most electronegative element is oxygen.
Also, the above structure is more stable than the previous structures. Therefore, this structure is the most stable lewis structure of HSO4–.
And since the HSO4– has a negative (-1) charge, mention that charge on the lewis structure by drawing brackets as follows:
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