H2SO4 Lewis Structure

H2SO4 Lewis Structure

H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) has two hydrogen atoms, one sulfur atom, and four oxygen atoms. In the lewis structure of H2SO4, there are two double bonds and two single bonds around the sulfur atom, with four oxygen atoms attached to it, and on each oxygen atom, there are two lone pairs. And the oxygen atoms having a single bond are attached with one hydrogen atom.

Steps

Here’s how you can draw the H2SO4 lewis structure step by step.

Step #1: draw sketch
Step #2: mark lone pairs
Step #3: mark charges
Step #4: minimize charges
Step #5: minimize charges again (if there are)

Let’s break down each step in detail.

#1 Draw Sketch

  • First, determine the total number of valence electrons

In the periodic table, hydrogen lies in group 1, and both sulfur and oxygen lie in group 16.

Hence, hydrogen has one valence electron, and both sulfur and oxygen have six valence electrons.

Since H2SO4 has two hydrogen atoms, one sulfur atom, and four oxygen atoms, so…

Valence electrons of two hydrogen atoms = 1 × 2 = 2
Valence electrons of one sulfur atom = 6 × 1 = 6
Valence electrons of four oxygen atoms = 6 × 4 = 24

And the total valence electrons = 2 + 6 + 24 = 32

  • Second, find the total electron pairs

We have a total of 32 valence electrons. And when we divide this value by two, we get the value of total electron pairs.

Total electron pairs = total valence electrons ÷ 2

So the total electron pairs = 32 ÷ 2 = 16

  • Third, determine the central atom

Here hydrogen can not be the central atom. Because the central atom is bonded with at least two other atoms, and hydrogen has only one electron in its last shell, so it can not make more than one bond.

Now we have to choose the central atom from sulfur and oxygen. Place the least electronegative atom at the center.

Since sulfur is less electronegative than oxygen, assume that the central atom is sulfur.

Therefore, place sulfur in the center and hydrogen and oxygen on either side.

  • And finally, draw the rough sketch
H2SO4 Lewis Structure (Step 1)

#2 Mark Lone Pairs

Here, we have a total of 16 electron pairs. And six bonds are already marked. So we have to only mark the remaining ten electron pairs as lone pairs on the sketch.

Also remember that hydrogen is a period 1 element, so it can not keep more than 2 electrons in its last shell. Sulfur is a period 3 element, so it can keep more than 8 electrons in its last shell. And oxygen is a period 2 element, so it can not keep more than 8 electrons in its last shell.

Always start to mark the lone pairs from outside atoms. Here, the outside atoms are hydrogens and oxygens. But no need to mark on hydrogen, because each hydrogen has already two electrons.

So for top oxygen and bottom oxygen, there are three lone pairs, for left oxygen and right oxygen, there are two lone pairs, and for sulfur, there is zero lone pair because all ten electron pairs are over.

Mark the lone pairs on the sketch as follows:

H2SO4 Lewis Structure (Step 2)

#3 Mark Charges

Use the following formula to calculate the formal charges on atoms:

Formal charge = valence electrons – nonbonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons

For each hydrogen atom, formal charge = 1 – 0 – ½ (2) = 0

For sulfur atom, formal charge = 6 – 0 – ½ (8) = +2

For top oxygen and bottom oxygen atom, formal charge = 6 – 6 – ½ (2) = -1

For left oxygen and right oxygen atom, formal charge = 6 – 4 – ½ (4) = 0

Here, both sulfur and oxygen atoms have charges, so mark them on the sketch as follows:

H2SO4 Lewis Structure (Step 3)

The above structure is not a stable lewis structure because both sulfur and oxygen atoms have charges. Therefore, reduce the charges (as below) by converting lone pairs to bonds.

#4 Minimize Charges

Convert a lone pair of the top oxygen atom to make a new S — O bond with the sulfur atom as follows:

H2SO4 Lewis Structure (Step 4)

#5 Minimize Charges Again

Since there are charges on sulfur and oxygen atoms, again convert a lone pair of the bottom oxygen atom to make a new S — O bond with the sulfur atom as follows:

H2SO4 Lewis Structure (Step 5)

In the above structure, you can see that the central atom (sulfur) forms an octet. Hence, the octet rule is satisfied.

Also, the above structure is more stable than the previous structures. Therefore, this structure is the stable lewis structure of H2SO4.

Next: Ethanol Lewis Structure

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